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TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Naval Special Warfare Basic Sniper Training 1 

Occupation and Selection of Positions 11 

Range Estimation Techniques . 15 

Techniques of Camouflage 23 

Introduction of Night Vision Devices , 33 

Litton Model M-485 Night Vision Weapons Sight 37 

Sniper Equipment 43 

Ammunition 5! 

Techniques of Observation 53 

Range Card, Log Book, and Field Sketching: Detailed Outline 61 

Sighting, Aiming, and Trigger Control 69 

Correcting for Environmental Factors 73 

Application of Fire „ 77 



83 

Moving Targets 87 

Lesson Outline: Special Operations 99 

Lesson Outline: Aircraft Surveillance and Takedown 107 

Pickup Zone and Landing Operations „ 123 

Helo Insertions/Extractions call for Fire/Helo/Spectre C-130 139 

Close Air Support (Fast Movers ) 145 

Dog Evasion ^ ^ 155 

an/pkc-117 !!!"!!!!!"!""!!!!!!!" 

AN/PSC-3 



LST-5B 



163 
172 



180 



Planning and Preparation of a Sniper Mission 199 



Range Brief 



241 



Marksmanship Test 24 



s 



251 
251 
254 
256 



Stalking Exercises 

Hide Construction Exercises 

Range Estimation Exercises 

Observation Exercise 257 

Memory Exercise , 259 

Camouflage and Concealment 

Photos 

Enclosures 

1 . Six-Week Training Schedule 297 

2 . Required Equipment Load Out 303 

Required Student Load Out 305 

Marksmanship Test 



261 
263 
297 



3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 



307 



Observation Test 309 

Range Estimation 

Stalking Test 



311 
313 



NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE 
BASIC SNIPER TRAINING SYLLABUS 

NOTE, The primary mission of the SEAL scout sniper in combat is to support combat 
operations by delivering percision fire on selected targets from concealed post ions. 
The SEAL sniper also has a secondary mission of gathering iniDrjnation for 
intelligence purposes. The future combat operations that would most likely involve 
Naval Special Warfare wculd be low intensity type combat operations that would 
employ SEAL personnel in the gathering of information for future military operations 
or the surgical removal of military targets and personnal with a minimal assult force 
with nc last of life to civilan personnel, this is the ideal mission profile tD 
employ snipers due to their advanced field skills, marksmanship and their ablity to 
operate independently in a field environment. 



i 



HOURLY BREAKDOWN OF 9- WEEK PERIOD OF INSTRUCTION. 



HOURS 



SUBJECT 



40 



NAVAL GUN FIRE SUPPORT SCHOOL (LITTLECREEK VA. ) 



ZEROING, 



20 



VNKNCWW DISTANCE F 15 1 JO. 



66,5 



STATIONARY TARGET FIRING (M-14/BQLT RIFLE) 



31 



MOVING TARGET FIRING. 



8 



FIGHT FIRING UNDER ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION, 



15 



SHOOTING TESTS - STATIONARY /MOVING /POPUP TARGETS 



12 



COMBAT PISTOL SHOOTING. 



12 



HELD INSERTIONS/ EXTRACTIONS-CALL FOE FIRE 
(4 APPLICATION EXERCISES- 2 NIGHT/2 DAY) 



11.5 



EMPLOYMENT/ MISS I 01 PLANING RELATED CLASSIES, 



28 



COMMUNICATIONS INSTRUCTIONS APPLICATION EXERCISES) 
LST-5E, AF/PRC-liy.PSC-S.AN/PRC-llS, 



42 



MAPPING/ AERIALPHQTO INST RUCTION (6 APPLICATION EXERCISES) 



1.5 



WRITTEN TESTS. 



44 



STALKING EXERCISES (11 EXERCISES). 



11 



RANGE ESTIMATION EXERCISESCil EXERCISES). 



<M 



II 



OBSERVATION" EXERCISESU1 EXERCISES) . 



6 



CD3TCEALHE3fT EXCERCISESO EXERCISES), 



10 



HIDE CONSTRUCTION EXERCISE (1 EXERCISE). 



72 



MISSION EXERCISES (3, EACH COYERIflG A 24-HOUR PERIOD). 



IS 



TACTICAL EXERCISE VITHDUT TSODPS<TEVT) (4EXERCI5ES) . 



500 



TOTAL HOURS 



2. SNIPER PROFICIENCY TRAINING. 



The purpose of proficiency training is to enable the qualified SEAL scout sniper to 
maintain the degree of skill and proficiency to wnich he was trained. Proficiency 
training should be conducted on a quarterly in all sniper skills, although special 
emphasis should be made an marksmanship and stalking. These should be practiced as 
frequenly as passible. Every effort should be made to maintain sniper proficiency. 



Snipers should be requalified each year in all SEAL scout sniper skills. They should 
also be "quizzed" and/ or tested every quarter. Proficiency training should be 
conducted to the same degree of standards as it was originally taught so not to lose 
any effectiveness in combat. If a sniper is not retained quarterly in all basic 
sniper skills, his quality of performance will decrease; therefore, he will not joeet 
the standards of the SEAL scout sniper. 

NOTE: SEAL scout snipers must be included, in the sniper roll, in normal SEAL 
tactical training and in tactical exercises. 



INTERNAL SECURITY EMPLOYMENT 



INTRODUCTION 



1- Gain Attention . Imagine Special Warfare suddenly committed to a peace 
keeping force such as in Beirut, Lebanon. Or, imagine being committed to 
preserve the peace and protect innocent lives and property in an urban 
environment such as Detroit or Watts during a "Big City" riot. What is the 
role of the sniper? Is the sniper a valid weapon for employment in situations 
like this? 



2. The answer is most emphatically, yes' I We have only to look around 
us to see examples of how effective the sniper can be in this type of 
situation. Probably the best examples available to us are two recent 
British involvements: Aden and Northern Ireland. In both cases the sniper 
has played a significant role in the successful British peace keeping 
efforts. Remember, that one of the key principles of crowd control /peace 
keeping is the use of only minimum force. The sniper with his selective 
target identification and engagement with that one well aimed shot is one 
of the best examples of the use of minimum force. 

3. Purpose 



a * Purpose . To provide the student with the general knowledge needed 
to employ a sniper section in internal security type environments. 

b. Main Ideas . To explain the sniper's role in: 

(1) Urban guerrilla operations. 
{2) Hostage situations. 

4. Training Objectives. Upon completion of this period of instruction, 
the student will be able to: 



or 



a . Employ 
ambush oper 




b. Construct and occupy an urban 0. P. 



c. Obtain and use special equipment needed for internal security 




d. Employ a Seal sniper section in a hostage situation. 



e. Select a hostage situation firing position taking into consideration 
accuracy requirements and effects of glass on the bullet. 



BODY 

1. Urban Guerrilla Warfare 

a. General. The role of the sniper in an urban guerrilla environment 
is to dominate the area of operations by delivery of selective, aimed fire 
against specific targets as authorized by local commanders. Usually this 
authorization only comes when such targets are about to employ firearms or 
other lethal weapons against the peace keeping force or innocent civilians 
The sniper's other role r and almost equally important, is the gathering 
and reporting of intelligence. 

b. Tasks. Within the above role, some specific tasks which may be 

-■^ ■ — 

assigned include: 



(1) When authorized by local commanders, engaging dissidents/ 
urban guerrillas when involved in hijacking, kidnapping, holding hostage 
etc. 



s, 



(2) Engaging urban guerrilla snipers as opportunity targets or as 
part of a deliberate clearance operation. 



(3) Covertly occupying concealed positions to observe selected 



areas . 



{4) Recording and reporting all suspicious activity in the area of 
observation . 

(5) Assisting in coordinating the activities of other elements by 
taking advantage of hidden observation posts. 

(6) Providing protection for other elements of the peace keeping 
force, including fireman, repair crews, etc. 

c. Limitations . In urban guerrilla operations there are several 
limiting factors that snipers would not encounter in a conventional war: 

(1) There is no FEBA and therefore no M No Mans Land" in which to 
operate. Snipers can therefore expect to operate in entirely hostile 
surroundings in most circumstances. 

(2) The enemy is covert, perfectly camouflaged among and totally 
indistinguishable from the everyday populace that surrounds him. 

(3) In areas where confrontation between peace keeping forces and 
the urban guerrillas takes place, the guerrilla dominates the ground entire 
from the point of view of continued presence and observation. Every yard 
of ground is known to them; it is ground of their own choosing. Anything 
approximating a conventional stalk to and occupation of, a hide is doomed 

to failure. 

(4) Although the sniper is not subject to the same difficult 

conditions as he is in conventional war, he is subject to other pressures. 



These include not only legal and political restraints but also the re- 
quirement to kill or wound without the motivational stimulus normally 
associated with the battlefield. 

(5) Normally in conventional war, the sniper needs no clearance to 
fire his shot. In urban guerrilla warfare, the sniper must make every 
effort possible to determine in each case the need to open fire and that 
it constitutes reasonable/minimum force under circumstances. 

d. Methods of Employment 

{1) Sniper Cordons /Periphery 0. P. *s 

(a) The difficulties to be overccme in placing snipers in 
heavily populated, hostile areas and for them to remain undetected, are 
considerable. It is not impossible, but it requires a high degree of 
training, not only on the part of the snipers involved, but also of the 
supporting troops. 

(b) To overcame the difficulties of detection and to maintain 
security during every day sniping operations, the aim should be to confuse 
the enemy. The peace keeping forces are greatly helped by the fact that 
most "trouble areas" are relatively small, usually not more than a few 
hundred yards in dimension. All can be largely dominated by a considerable 
number of carefully sited 0. P. 's around their peripheries. 

(c) The urban guerrilla intelligence network will eventually 
establish the locations of the various 0. P. ' s. By constantly changing 
the 0. P. r s which are in current use it is impossible for the terrorist 
to know exactly which are occupied. However, the areas to be covered by 
the O.P.'s remain fairly constant and the coordination of arcs of fire 
and observation must be controlled at a high level, usually battalion. It 
may be delegated to company level for specific operations. 

(d) The number of O.P.'s required to successfully cordon an area 
is considerable. Hence, the difficulties of sustaining such an operation 
over a protracted period in the same area should not be under-estimated. 

(2) Sniper Ambush 

(a) In cases where intelligence is forth coming that a target 
will be in a specific place at a specific time, a sniper ambush is fre- 
quently a better alternative than a more cumbersome cordon operation, 

{b) Close reconnaissance is easier than in normal operation as 
it can be carried out by the sniper as part of a normal patrol without 
party to its hide undetected. To place snipers in position undetected will 
require some form of a deception plan. This often takes the form of a 
routine search operation in at least platoon strength. During the course 
of the search the snipers position themselves in their hide. They remain in 
position when the remainder of the force withdraws. This tactic is 
especially effective when carried out at night. 

(c) Once in position the snipers must be prepared to remain for 
lengthy periods in the closest proximity to the enemy and their sympa- 
thizers. 

(d) Their security is tenuous at best. Most urban O.P.'s have 
"dead spots" and this combined with the fact that special ambush positions 
are frequently out of direct observation by other friendly forces makes 
them highly susceptible to attack, especially from guerrillas armed with 



with explosives. The uncertainty about being observed on entry is a 
constant worry to the snipers. It can and does have a most disquieting 
effect on the sniper and underlines the need for highly trained men of 
stable character. 

(ej If the ambush position cannot be directly supported from 
a permanent position, a "back up" force must be placed at immediate notice 
to extract the snipers after the ambush or in the event of compromise 
Normally it must be assumed that after the ambush, the snipers cannot make 
their exit without assistance. They will be surrounded by large, extronely 
hostile crowds, consequently the "back up" force must not only be close at 
hand but also suff-i^-i^nt- in <=w<=k 



c. Urban Sniping Hides/0. P. *s 

(!> Selecting the Docation . The selection of hides and P 
positions demand great care. The over-riding requirement of a hide/0. p." 
position is for it to dominate its area of responsibility, 

(a) When selecting a suitable location there is always a 
tendency to go for height. In an urban operation this can be mistake The 
greater the height attained, the more the sniper has to look out over an 
area and away from his immediate surroundings. For example, if an p 
were established on the 10th floor of an apartment building, to seeVroad 
beneath, the sniper would have to lean out of the window, which does little 
for the O. P.' s security. The locations of incidents that the sniper might 
have to deal with are largely unpredictable, but the ranges are usually 
relatively short. Consequently, an O.P. must aim to cover its immediate - 
surroundings as well as middle and far distances. In residential areas 
this is rarely possible as O.P, 's are forced off ground floor level by 
passing pedestrians. But generally it is not advisable to go above the 
passing pedestrians. But generally it is not advisable to go above the 
second floor, because to go higher greatly increases the dead space in 
front of the O.P. This is not a cardinal rule, however. Local conditions, 
such as being on a bus route, may force the sniper to go higher to avoid 
direct observation by passengers. 

(b) In view of this weakness in local defense of urban 
■ J ' the P rinc:L Ples of mutual support between O.P, 's assumes even greater 
importance. The need for mutual support is another reason for coordination 
and planning to take place at battalion level. 

(c) The following are possible hide/O. P. locations: 

<D Old, derelict buildings. Special attention should 
he paid to the possibility of encountering booby traps. One proven method 
of detecting guerrilla booby traps is to notice if the locals (especially 
children) move in and about the building freely. 

.... (2 > Occupied houses. After careful observation of the 

inhabitants daily routine, snipers can move into occupied homes and 
establish hides/O.P.s in the basement and attics. This method is used very 
successfully by the British in Northern Ireland. 

(3) Shops. 

(4) Schools and Churches. When using these as hide/O P 
locations, the snipers risk possible damage to what might already be 
strained public relations. 

(5) Factories, sheds, garages. 



(6) Basements and between floors in buildings. It is 
possible for the sniper team to locate themselves in these positions 
although there may be no window or readily usuable firing port available. 
These locations require the sniper to remove bricks or stone without leaving 
any noticeable evidence outside of the building. TO do this the sniper must 
carefully measure the width of the mortar around a selected brick/ stone. 
He must then construct a frame exactly the size of the selected brick with 
the frame edges exactly the size of the surrounding mortar. He then 
carefully removes the brick from the wall and places it in his frame. The 
mortar is then crushed and glued to the frame so that it blends perfectly 
with the untouched mortar still in place. The brick/ frame combination is 
then placed back into the wall. From the outside, nothing appears abnormal, 
while inside the sniper team has created an extremely difficult to detect 
firing port. Care must be taken however that when firing frcm this position 
dust does not get blown about by muzzle blast and that the brick/frame 
combination is itrmediately replaced. Another difficulty encountered with 
this position is that it offers a very restricted field of view. 

{7) Rural areas from which urban areas can be observed. 

{d) An ideal hide/0. P. should have the following characteristics: 



(1) A secure and quiet approach route. This should, if 
possible, be free of garbage cans, crumbling walls, barking dogs and other 
.impediments . 

(2) A secure entry and exit point. The more obvious and 
easily accessible entry/exit points are not necessarily the best as their 
constant use during subsequent relief of sniper teams may more readily 
lead to compromise. 

(3) good arcs of observation. Restricted arcs are inevitable 
but the greater the arc the better. 

(4) Security. These considerations have already been dis- 
cussed above. 

(5) Comfort. This is the lowest priority but never the 
less important. Uncomfortable observation and firing positions can only 
be maintained for short periods. If there is no adequate relief from 
observation, O.P.s can rarely remain effective for more than a few hours. 



t 



(2) Manning the P.P. /Hide 

(a) Before moving into the hide /0. P. the snipers must have 
cwina information; 



> 



etc.) 



(1) The exact nature of the mission (i.e. observe, shoot, 

(2) The length of stay. 

(3) The local situation. 

(4) Procedure and timing for entry. 

(5) Snergency evacuation procedures. 

(6) Radio procedures. 

(7) Movement of any friendly troops. 

(8) Procedure and timing for exit. 

(9) Any special equipment needed. 



HP 



(b) The well-tried and understood principle of remaining back 
from windows and other apertures when in buildings has a marked effect on 
the manning of O.P.s/hides. The field of view from the back of a roam 
through a window is limited. To enable a worthwhile area to be covered / 
two or even three men may have to observe at one time from different parts 
of the reran. 

{3) Special Equipment for Urban Hides/O.P . The following equipment 
may be necessary for construction of or use in the urban/0. P. 



(a) 
(b) 
(O 

<d) 

with minimal 

(e) 

(f) 

tg) 

points . 



Pliers. To cut wires. 

Glass Cutter. To remove glass from windows. 

Suction Cups. To aid in removing glass. 

Rubber Headed Hammers. To use in construction of the hide 

noise . 
Skeleton Keys. To open locked doors. 
Pry Bars. To open jammed doors and windows. 
Padlocks. To lock doors near hide /0. P. entry and exit 



2. Hostage Situations 

a. General. Snipers and commanding officers must appreciate that even 
a good, well placed shot may not always result in the instantaneous death 
of a terrorist. Even the best sniper when armed with the best weapon and 
bullet combination cannot guarantee the desired results. Even an instantly 
fatal shot may not prevent the death of a hostage when muscle spasms in the 
terrorists' s body trigger his weapon. As a rule then, the sniper should 
only be employed when all other means of moving the situation have been 
exhaus ted . 



b. Accuracy Requirements 

^ ■ M ■"■ ■— ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ™ ™™ 

(1) The Naval Special Warfare Sniper Rifle is the finest combat 
sniper weapon in the world. Mien using the Lake City Ml 18 Match 7.62 mm 
ammunition it will constantly group to within one minute of angle or one 
inch at one hundred yards. 

(2) Keeping this in mind, consider the size of the target in a 
hostage situation. Doctors all agree that the only place on a man, where 
if struck with a bullet instantaneous death will occur, is the head. 
(Generally, the normal human being will live 8-10 seconds after being shot 

directly in the heart. ) The entire head of a man is a relatively large 
target measuring approximately 7 inches in diameter. But in order to 
narrow the odds and be more positive of an instant killing shot the size 
of the target greatly reduces. The portion of the brain that controls 
all motor re lex actions is located directly behind the eyes and runs 
generally from ear lobe to ear lobe and is roughly two inches wide. In 
reality then, the size of the snipers target is two inches not seven inches 

(3) By applying the windage and elevation rule, it is easy to 
see then that the average Seal sniper cannot and should not attempt to 
deliver an instantly killing head shot beyond 200 yards. To require him 
to do so, asks him to do something the rifle and ammunition combination 
available to him cannot do. 



8 



c. Position Selection . Generally the selection of a firing position 
for a hostage situation is not much different from selecting a firing 
position for any other form of combat. The same guidelines and rules 
apply. Remember, the terrain and situation will dictate your choice of 
firing positions. However, there are several peculiar considerations 
the sniper must remember: 

(1) Although the sniper should only be used as a last resort, 
he should be moved into his position as early as possible. This will 
enable him to precisely estimate his ranges, postively identify both the 
hostages and the terrorist and select alternate firing positions for use 
if the situation should change. 

(2) If the situation should require firing through glass, the 
sniper should know two things: 

{a) That when the Mils airmunition penetrates glass, in most 
cases the copper jacket is stripped off its lead core and fragments. These 
fragments will injure or kill should they hit either the hostage or the 
terrorist. The fragments show no standard pattern but randomly fly in 
a cone shaped pattern much like shot from a shotgun. The lead core of the 
bullet does continue to fly in a straight line. Even when the glass is 
angled to as much as 45° the lead core will not show any signs of deflection, 
(back 6 feet from the point of impact with the glass) . 

(b) That when the bullet impacts with the glass, the glass 
will shatter and explode back into the room. The angle of the bullet 
impacting with the glass has absolutely no bearing on the direction of the 
flight of the shattered glass. The shattered glass will always fly 
perpendicular to the pane of the glass. 

d. Conmand and Control 

(1) Once the decision has been made by the commander to employ 
the sniper, all cannand and control of his actions should pass to the 
sniper team leader. At no time should the sniper have to fire on someone's 
comnand. He should be given clearance to fire and then he and he alone 
should decide exactly when. 

[2) If more than one sniper team is used to engage one or more 
hostages it is imperative that the rule above applies to all teams. But it 
will be necessary for the snipers to communicate with each other. The most 
reliable method of accomplishing this is to establish a "land line" or 
TA-312 phone loop much like a gun loop used in artillery battery firing 
positions- This enables all teams to communicate with all the others 
without confusion about frequencies, radio procedure, etc. 

OPPORTUNITY FOR QUESTIONS AND COMMEN TS 

SUMMARY 

1. Reemphasize . During this period of instruction we discussed urban 
guerrilla operations and hostage situations. In urban guerrilla operations 
we outlined the tasks and limitations conmon to all operations. We then 
discussed the two methods of employing snipers: (1) sniper cordons/ 
periphery O.P.s and (2) sniper ambushes. We discussed selecting a position 



9 



in an urban area and the most suitable locations for hides/O.P.s. Then 
JOOfctf at hCW to mm an O.P. aw? what special equipment you might need ti 
construct and work in it. 

In the discussion of hostage situations we examined the accuracy 
requirements and the position selection considerations cannon to all 
terrorist environments. We also discussed the command and control pro- 
cedures for employing snipers in this type of role. 

2. Remotivate . Remember, its not outside the realm of possibility that 
someday you or someone you've trained could find himself in this type of 
situation. At that time you'll take the test — let's hope we have no 
failures, because the political and social repercussions are too great 
a price to pay for one sniper who didn't prepare himself to put that one 
round on target. 



10 



r 



OCCUPATION 
AND 
SELECTION OF POSITIONS 



INTRODUCTION 



1- Gain Attention . Relate story of Russian super-sniper Vassili 
and German super-sniper Major Konigs at the Battle of Stalingrad, 
from Enemy at the Gates by William Craig.) 



Zaitsev 
(Excerpts 



2. Simply stated, the Specwar snipers mission is to see without being 
seen and to kill without being killed. 

3 . Purpose 



a. Purpose 



purpose of thi 



required 



b. Main Ideas . The main ideas to be discussed are the following: 

(1) Position Selection 

(2) Hasty Positions 

(3) Position Safety 

(4) Actions in Position 

4* Training Objectives . Upon completion of this period of instruction the 
student will: 

a. Identify those features which contribute to the selection of a 
position, i. e. cover, concealment, fields of fire, avenues of approach 

and withdrawal, etc. 

b. Determine, using maps, aerial photos and/or visual reconnaissance, 
the location of a suitable sniper position. 

TRANSITION . To effectively accomplish their mission of supporting combat 
operations by delivering precision fire on selected targets the sniper 
team must select a position from which to observe and fire. 



BODY 

1- Position Selection . The sniper, having decided upon an area of 
operation, must chose a specific spot from which to operate. The sniper 
must not forget that a position which appears to him as an obvious and 
ideal location for a sniper will also appear as such to the enemy. He 
should avoid the obvious positions and stay away from prominent, readily 



11 



identifiable objects and terrain features. (TA) The best position 
represents an optimum balance between two considerations. 

a. It provides maximum fields of observation and fire to the sniper. 

b. It provides maximum concealment from enemy observation. 

2 - Hasty Positions . Due to the limited nature of most sniper missions 
and the requirement to stalk and kill, the sniper team will in most cases 
utilize a hasty post. Considering the fundamentals of camouflage and 
concealment the team can acquire a hasty sniper post in any terrain. (TA) 
The principle involved when assuming a hasty position is to utilize a 
maximum of the team's ability to blend with the background or terrain and 
utilize shadows at all times. Utilizing the proper camouflage techniques, 
while selecting the proper position from which to observe and shoot, the 
sniper can effectively preclude detection by the enemy. (TA) While hasty 
positions in open areas are the least desirable, mission accomplishment 
may require assuming a post in an undesirable area. Under these 
circumstances, extreme care must be taken to utilize the terrain {ditches, 
depressions, arid bushes) to provide maximum concealment. The utilization 
of camouflage nets and covers can provide additional concealment to avoid 
detection. There should be no limitation to ingenuity of the sniper team 
in selection of a hasty sniper post. Under certain circumstances it may 
be necessary to fire from trees, rooftops, steeples, under logs, from 
tunnels, in deep shadows, and from buildings, swamps, woods and an un- 
limited variety of open areas. 

3- Position Safety . Selection of a well covered or concealed position is 
not a guarantee of the sniper's safety. He must remain alert to the danger 
of self-betrayal and must not violate the following security precautions. 

a. When the situation permits, select and construct a sniper position 
frcm which to observe and shoot. The slightest movement is the only 
requirement for detection, therefore even during the hours of darkness 
caution must be exercised as the enemy may employ night vision equipment 
and sound travels great distances at night. 

b. The sniper should not be located against a contrasting background 
or near prominent terrain features, these are usually under observation 
or used as registration points. 



c. In selecting a position, consider those areas that are least likely 
to be occupied by the enemy. 

d. The position must be located within effective range of the expected 
targets and must afford a clear field of fire. 




Construct or employ alternate 
cover an area. 



positions where necessary to 



f. Assume at all times that the sniper position is under enany 
observation. Therefore while moving into position the sniper team should 
take full advantage of all available cover and concealment and practical 
individual camouflage discipline, i. e. face and exposed skin areas 



12 



camouflaged with appropriate material. The face veil should be completely 
covering the face and upon moving into position the veil should cover the 
bolt receiver and entire length of the scope. 

g. Avoid making sound. 

■ 

h. Avoid unnecessary movement unless concealed from observation. 

i 

i. Avoid observing over a skyline or the top of cover or concealment 
p which has an even outline or contrasting background. 

j. Avoid using the binoculars or telescope where light may reflect 
from lenses. 

k. Avoid moving foil age concealing the position when observing. 

1. Observe around a tree from a position near the ground. 

m. Stay in the shadow when observing from a sniper post within a 
building. 

* n. Careful consideration must be given to the route into or out of 

the post. A worn path can easily be detected. The route should be 
concealed and if possible a covered route acquire. 

o. When possible, choose a position so that a terrain obstacle lies 
( between it and the target and/or known or suspected enemy location. 

( p. While on the move and subsequently while moving into or out of 

position all weapons will be loaded with a round in the chamber and the 
weapon on safe. 

t 4- Actions in Position . After arriving in position and conducting their 

hasty then detailed searches, the sniper team organizes any and all 
equipment in a convenient manner so it is readily accessable if needed. 
The sniper team continues to observe and collect any and all pertinent 
information for intelligence purposes. They establish their own system 
for observation, eating, sleeping, resting and making head calls when 

* necessary. This is usually done in time increments of 30 to 60 minutes 

and worked alternately between the two snipers for the entire time they are 

1 in position, allowing one of the individuals to relax to seme degree for 

short periods. Therefore it is possible for the snipers to remain 
effective for longer periods of time. 

The sniper team must practice noise discipline at all times while 
occupying their position. Therefore arm and hand signals are widely used 
■ as a means of comnunicating. The following are recommended for use when 

noise discipline is of the utmost importance. 

* a. Pointing at oneself; meaning I, me, mine. 

b. Pointing at partner; meaning you, your, yours. 

c. Thumbs up; meaning affirmative, yes, go. 



13 



d. Thumbs down; meaning negative, no, no go. 

e. Hands over eyes; meaning cannot see. 

f. Pointing at eyes; meaning look, see, observe. 

g. Slashing stroke across throat; meaning dead, kill, 
h. Hands cupped together; meaning together. 

i. Hand cupped around ear, palm facing forward; meaning listen, hear. 

j. Fist; meaning stop, halt, hold up. 

k. Make pumping action with arm; meaning double time. 

OPPORTUNITY FOR QUESTIONS 

SUfrMARY 

1. Reemphasize . During this period of instruction we discussed position 
selection and the two factors necessary to all positions (1) Provides 
maximum fields of observation and fire to the sniper. (2) It provides 
maximum concealment from enemy observation. 

We then covered selection of hasty positions and that mission 
accomplishment might require of hasty positions and that mission accomplish- 
ment might require assuming a position in an undesireable area. All 
available terrain should be used to provide maximum concealment under these 
circumstances . 

In conclusion we covered a number of safety precautions to be con- 
sidered while on the move and in the process of moving into and out of 
position . 



2 . Remotivate . 



- ■ ^^j- ■ 



rcomplishes 



to a large degree, on their knowledge, understanding, and application of 
the various field techniques or skills that allows them to move, hide, 
observe, and detect. These skills are a measure of the sniper's ability 
to survive. 



14 



RANGE ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES 



* 



INTROD UCTION 

1. Gain Attention . 
to another at some 
tool was available 
such a measurement. 



Everyone has had to estimate the distance fran one ; 
time. Usually an es timate was made either because no 
for exact measurements or because time did not allow 



r 



2. As a sniper, in order to engage a target accurately, you will be required 
to estimate the range to that target. However, unlike with many of your 
early experiences, a "ball-park guesstimate" will no longer suffice. You 
will have to be able to estimate ranges out to 1000 yards with 90% accuracy. 

Zj Purpose 

a. Purpose . To acquaint the student with the various techniques of 
range estimation he will use in his role as a sniper. 



b. Main Ideas . Describe the 
appearance of objects method, the 
the range card method and the use 



use of maps, the 100 meter method, the 
bracketing method, the averaging method, 
of the scope reticle in determining range 



4 - Training Objectives . Upon completion of this period of instruction, 
the student will: 

a. Determine range with the aid of a map. 

b. Demonstrate the other techniques for determining range by eye. 

c. Identify those factors which effect range estimation. 



TRANSITION 



The sniper's training must concentrate on methods which are 
audptdDxe ix> the sniper's equipment and which will not expose the sniper 

BODY A. MEHTODS OF RANGE ESTIMATION 

1. Use of Maps . When available, maps are the most accurate aid in dete 
range. This is easily done by using the paper-strip method for measurin 
horizontal distance. 

2. The 100 Meter Unit of Measure Method . 

a. Techniques . To use this method, the sniper must be able to visu. 
a distance of 100 meters on the ground. For ranges up to 500 meters, he 



\ 



15 



determines the number of 100 meter increments between the two points. Beyond 
500 meters, he selects a point midway to the targets, determine the number 
of 100 meter increments to the halfway point, and doubles the result. 

b. Ground which slopes upward gives the illusion of greater distance, 
while ground sloping downward gives an illusion of shorter than actual 
distance . 

c. Attaining Proficiency . To become proficient with this method of 
range estimation, the sniper must measure off several 100 meter courses on 
different types of terrain, and then, by walking over these courses several 
times, determines the average number of paces required to cover the 100m of 
the various terrains. He can then practice estimation by walking over un- 
mesured terrain, counting his paces, and marking off 100m increments. Looking 
back over his trail, he can study the appearance of the successive increments. 
Conversely, he can estimate the distance to a given point, walk to it count- 
ing his paces, and thus check his accuracy. 

d. Limitations . The greatest limitation to the 100m unit of measure 
method is that it's accuracy is directly related to how much of the terrain 
is visible to the observer. This is particularly important in estimating 
long ranges. If a target appears at a range of 100 meters or more, and the 
observer can only see a portion of the ground between himself and the target, 
the- I00rn unit of measure cannot be used with any degree of accuracy. 

3* Appearance-of -Objects Method. 

a. Techniques . This method is a means of determining range by the size 
and other characteristic details of some object. For example, a motorist is 
not interested in exact distance, but only that he has sufficient road space 
to pass the car in front of him safely. Suppose however, that a motorist 
knew that a distance of 1 kilometer {Km) , an oncoming vehicle appeared to 

be 1 inch high, 2 inches wide, with about % inch between the headlights. 
Then, any time he saw oncoming vehicles that fit these dimensions, he would 
know that they were about 1 Km away. This same technique can be used by 
snipers to determine range. Aware of the sizes and details of personnel and 
equipment at known ranges, he can compare these characteristics to similar 
objects at unknown distances, and thus estimate the range. 

b. To use the appearance-of -objects method with any degree of accuracy, 
the sniper must be thoroughly familiar with the characteristic details of 
objects as they appear at various ranges. For example, the sniper should 
study the appearance of a man at a range of 100 meters. He fixes the man's 
appearance firmly in his mind, carefully noting details of size and the 
characteristics of uniform and equipment. Next, he studies the same man in 
the kneeling position and then in the prone position. By comparing the 
appearance of these positions at known ranges frcm l00-500m, the sniper can 
establish a series of mental images which will help him in determining ranges 
on unfamiliar terrain. Practice time should also be devoted to the 
appearance of other familiar objects such as weapons and vehicles. 

c. Limitations . Because the successful use of this methcxl depends upon 
visibility, or anything which limits visibility, such as smoke, weather or 
darkness, will also limit the effectiveness of this method. 



16 



4. Combination of Methods . Under proper conditions, either the 100m unit 
of ineasure or the appearance-of -objects method of determining range will 
work, however, proper conditions rarely exist on the battlefield. Con- 
sequently / the sniper will be required to use a combination of methods. 
Terrain can limit the accuracy of the 100m unit of measure method and visi- 
bility can limit the appearance-of -objects method. For example,, an observer 
may not be able to see all of the terrain out to the target, but he may see 
enough to get a fair idea of the distance. A slight haze may obscure many 
of the target details, but the observer can still make some judgment of it's 
size. Thus, by carefully considering the results of both methods, an ex- 
perienced observer should arrive at a figure close to the true range. 

5. Bracketing Method . By this method, the sniper assumes that the target 
is no more than "X" meters, but no less than "Y" meters away; he uses the 
average as the estimation of range* 

6. Averaging Method . Snipers can increase the accuracy of range estimation 
by eye by using an average of the individual team members estimations. 

7. Range Card Method . Information contained on prepared range cards estab- 
lishes reference points from which the sniper can judge ranges rapidly and 
accurately. When a target appears, it's position is determined in relation 
to the nearest object or terrain feature drawn on the range card. This will 
give an approximation of the targets range. The sniper determines the 
difference in range between the reference point and the target, and sets his 
sights for the proper range, or uses the correct hold off. 

8. Range Estimation Formula Method . This method requires the use of either 
binoculars or telescopic sights equipped with a mil scale. To use the 
formula, the sniper must know the average size of a man or any given piece of 
equipment and he must be able to express the height of the target in yards. 
The formula is: SIZE OF OBJ. (IN YDS) X 1000 = RAN3E TO TARGET 

SIZE OF OBJ. (IN MILS) 

For example: A sniper, looking through his scope sees a man standing. He 
measures the size of the man, using the mil scale on the reticle, and he 
sees that the man is 4 mils high. He knows that the average man is five 
and a half feet tall. To convert 6 feet to yards, he divides by 3 and finds 
) that the man is 2.0 yards tall. Using the Formula: 



SIZE OF OBJ (IN YDS) 2.0 x 1000 = 2000 = , 
SIZE OF OBJ (IN MILS) 4 4 ^ UU yaraS 



! Once the formula is understood, the sniper needs only to be able to estimate 
1 the actual height of any target and he can determine the range to that target 

extremely accurately. 

b. Limitations . While this formula can be extremely accurate, it does 
have several limitations. 

f (1) At long ranges, measurement in mils must be precise to the 

' nearest half mil or a miss will result. For example; If a man standing 

-m 

appears to the 1% mils high, he is 1333 yds away. If he appears to be 2 
mils high, he is only 1000 yds away. Careless measurement could result in 
a range estimation error of 333 yds in this case. 



17 



(2) This formula can be worked quick ly, even if the ccnpu tat ions 
done mentally. However, as with any formula, care must be taken in worki: 
it or a totally wrong answer can result, and 



(3) The formula 
the actual height of a target in yards. 



depends entirely on the sniper's ability to estimate 



B. FACTORS EFFECTING RANGE ESTIMATION 

1. Nature of the Target 

a. An object of regular outline, such as a house, will appear closer 
than one of irregular outline, such as a clump of trees. 

b. A target which contrasts with it's background will appear to be 
closer than it actually is. 



ixposed 



is. 



2. Mature of Terrain 
terrain conformation, 
observing over smooth 
to underestimate. 



The observer's eye follows the irregularities of 
and he will tend to overestimate distance values. In 
terrain such as sand, water, or snow, his tendency is 



3. Light Conditions . The more c 
appears. A target in full sunlight 
target when viewed at dusk or dawn, 
of the sun in relation to the target 
the sun is behind the viewer, the 
sun is behind the target, the target 
to be farther away. 




a target can be seen, the closer it 
appears to be closer than the same 
through smoke, fog or rain. The position 
also affects the apparent range. When 
appears to be closer. When the 
lore difficult to see, and appears 




OPPORTUNITY FOR QUESTIONS AND COMMENTS 



SUMMARY 



1. Reemphasize. We have seen various ways to estimate range. Each one of 
them works well under the conditions for which it was devised, and when 
used in combination with one another, will suit any condition of visibility 
or terrain. 

2. Remotivate. The accuracy of the shot you will fire will depend to a 
large extent on whether or not you have applied the rules for range 
estimation. Remember, if you cannot determine how far your target is away 
from you, you would just as well have left your rifle in the armory. 



18 



METRIC/ENGLISH 
EQUIVELANTS 



i 



MEHRIC 








ENGLISH 


1 MOA 








1 M3A 


(GM) 


YDS 


YDS/Mh'l'EKS 

100 


91 


(IN) 


3 


109 


1 


4.5 


164 


150 


137 


1.5 


6 


219 


200 


183 


2 


7.5 


273 


250 


228 


2.5 


9 


328 


300 


274 


3 


10.5 


383 


350 


320 


3.5 


12 


437 


400 


365 


4 


13.5 


492 


450 


411 


4.5 


15 


546 


500 


457 


5 


16.5 


602 


550 


503 


5.5 


19 


656 


600 


549 


6 


19.5 


711 


650 


594 


6.5 


21 


766 


700 


640 


7 


22.5 


820 


750 


686 


7.5 


24 


875 


800 


731 


8 


■25.5 


929 


850 


777 


8.5 


27 


984 


900 


823 


9 


28.5 


1039 


950 


869 


9.5 


30 


1094 


1000 


914 


10 


31.5 


1148 


1050 


960 


10.5 


33 


1203 


1100 


1005 


11 



19 



RANGE ESTIMATION TABLE FOR SIX FOOT MAN 



Average Standing Man - 6 Feet Tall/2 Yards Tall 
Average Sitting/Kneeling Man - 3 Feet Tall/l Yard Tall 



HEIGHT 
IN MIIS 

1 

1.5 

2 

2.5 

3 

3.5 

4 

4.5 

5 

5.5 

6 

6.5 

7 

7.5 

8 

8.5 

9 

9.5 

10 



STANDING 

RANGE 

2000 
1333 
1000 

800 

666 

571 

500 

444 

400 

364 

333 

308 

286 

267 

250 

235 

222 

211 

200 



S ITTING/KNEELING 
RANGE 

1000 
666 
500 
400 
333 
286 
250 
222 
200 
182 
167 
154 
143 
133 
125 
118 
111 
105 
100 



20 



RANGE ESTIMATION TABLE OF MILS 
FOR PERSONNEL - 6', 5'9" and 5'6" 

^ ^ ^ — ,™ ■■■■ . ^ ■ bb &^ ■■ BBBBBB _ aBBBBBBU _ BBBBBBBU 



MILS 



6*-2YDS 



5'9"-1.9 YDS 



5'6"-1.8 YDS 



2000 



1900 



1800 



1-1/4 



1600 



1520 



1440 



1-1/2 



1333 



1266 



1200 



1-3/4 



1143 



1085 



1028 



1000 



950 



900 



2-1/4 



888 



844 



800 



2-1/2 



800 



760 



720 



2-3/4 



727 



690 



654 



666 



633 



600 



3-1/4 



615 



584 



553 



3-1/2 



571 



542 



514 



3-3/4 



533 



506 



480 



500 



475 



450 



4-1/4 



470 



447 



423 



4-1/2 



444 



422 



400 



4-3/4 



421 



400 



378 



400 



380 



360 



5-1/4 



380 



361 



342 



5-1/2 



362 



345 



327 



5-3/4 



347 



330 



313 



334 



316 



300 



6-1/4 



320 



304 



288 



6-1/2 



308 



292 



277 



6-3/4 



296 



281 



266 



286 



271 



257 



8 



250 



237 



225 



222 



211 



200 



10 



200 



100 



180 



TECHNIQUES 

OF 
CAMOUFLAGE 



INTRODUCTION 



i 



1. Gain Attention . Most uninformed people envision a sniper to be a 
person with a high powered rifle who either takes pot shots at people from 
high buildings or ties himself in a coconut tree until he's shot out of 
it. But to the enemy, who knows the real capabilities of a sniper, he is 
a very feared ghostly phantom who is never seen, and never heard until his 
well aimed round cracks through their formation and explodes the head of 
their platoon ccmnander or radio man. A well trained sniper can greatly 
decrease the movement and capabilities of the most disciplined troops 
because of the fear of this unseen death. 



2. This gives one example of how effective snipers can be and how the 
possibility of their presence can work on the human mind. But, marksman- 
ship is only part of the job. If the sniper is to be a phantom to the 
enemy, he must know and apply the proper techniques of camouflage. He 
cannot be just good at camouflage. He has to be perfect if he is to ccme 
back alive. 




3. 



a. Purpose . The purpose of this period of 
the student with the basic knowledge to be able 
proper techniques of camouflage and concealment 
in a ccmbat environment. 



instruction is to provide 
to apply practically, the 
needed to remain undetected 



b. Main Ideas . The main ideas which will be discussed are the following 

(1) Target Indicators 

(2) Types of Camouflage 

(3) Geographical Areas 

(4) Camouflage During Movement 

(5) Tracks and Tracking 

4. Training Objectives . Upon completion of this period of instruction, 
the student will: 



a. Camouflage his uniform and himself by using traditional or expedient 
methods as to resemble closely the terrain through which he will move. 



b. Camouflage all of his equipment to 
detection. 



present the least chance or 



23 



c. Know and understand the principles which would reveal him in combat 
and how to overcome them. 



d. Understand the basic 
can be learned from tracking. 



BODY 



1 . Target Indicators 

a. General. A target indicator is anything a sniper does or fails 
to do that will reveal his position to an enemy. A sniper has to know and 
understand these indicators and their principles if he is to keep from 
being located and also that he may be able to locate the enemy. Additionally, 
he must be able to read the terrain to use the most effective areas of 
concealment for movement and firing positions. Furthermore, a sniper 
adapts his dress to meet the types of terrain he might move through. 



b . Sound . 
talking. 



Sound can be made by movement, equipment rattling, or 



The enemy may dismiss small noises as natural, but when someone 
speaks he knows for certain someone is near. Silencing gear should be done 
before a mission so that it makes no sound while running or walking. Moving 
quietly is done by slow, smooth, deliberate movements, being conscious of 
where you place your feet and how you push aside bush to move through it. 

c. Movement. Movement in itself is an indicator. The human eye is 
attracted to movement. A stationary target may be impossible to locate, -q 
slowly moving target may go undetected, but a quick or jerky movement will 
be seen quickly. Again, slow, deliberate movements are needed. 

d. Improper Camouflage . The largest 



Camouflage . The largest number of targets will usually 
be detected by improper camouflage. They are divided into three groups. 

U) Shine . Shine comes from reflective objects exposed and not 
toned down, such as belt buckles, watches, or glasses. The lenses of 
optical gear will reflect light. This can be stopped by putting a paper 
shade taped to the end of the scope or binoculars. Any object that re- 
flects light should be camouflaged. 

(2) Outline. The outline of items such as the body, head, rifle 
or other equipment must be broken up. Such outlines can be seen from great 
distances. Therefore, they must be broken up into features unrecognizable, 
or unnoticable from the rest of the background. 

(3) Contrast with the Background . When using a position for 
concealment, a background should be chosen that will absorb the appearance 
of the sniper and his gear. Contrast means standing out against the back- 
ground, such as a man in a dark uniform standing on a hilltop against the 
sky. A difference of color or shape from the background will usually be 
spotted. A sniper must therefore use the coloring of his background and 
stay in shadows as much as possible. 

2. Types of Camouflage 



24 



a. Stick Camouflage . In using the "grease paint", all the exposed 
skin should be covered, to include the hands, back of the neck, ears, and 
face. The parts of the face that naturally form shadows should be lightened 
The predominate features that shine, should be darkened, such as the fore- 
head, cheeks, nose and chin, The pattern and coloring that should be used 
is one that will blend with the natural vegetation and shadows. For jungle 
or woodland, dark and light green are good. White and gray should be used 
for snow areas, and light brown and sand coloring for deserts. 



(1) 
irregular s 




is 



not want is 
background . 



Types of Patterns . The types of facial patterns can vary from 
tripes across the face to bold splotching. The best pattern, 
a combination of both stripes and splotches. What one does 
a wild type design and coloring that stands out from the 



b. Camouflage Clothing . 

(1) The Ghillie Suit. The qui Hie suit is an outstanding form of 
personal camouflage. It is used by both the British and Canadian Snipers 
to enable them to stalk close to their targets undetected. The ghillie 
suit is a camouflage uniform or outer smock that is covered with irregular 
patterns of garnish, of blending color, attached to it. It also has a 
small mesh netting sewn to the back of the neck and shoulders, and then 
draped over the head for a veil. The veil is used while in position to 
break up the outline of the head, hid the rifle scope, and allow movement 
of the hands without fear of detection. The veil when draped over the head 
should come down to the stomach or belt and have camouflaged garnish tied 
in it to break up the outline of the head and the solid features of the 
net. When the sniper is walking, he pushes the veil back on his head and 
neck so that he will have nothing obstructing his vision or hindering his 
movements. The veil is, however, worn down while crawling into position 

or while near the enemy. The ghillie suit, though good, does not make one 
invisible. A sniper must still take advantage of natural camouflage and 
concealment. Also wearing this suit, a sniper would contrast with regular 
troops, so it would only be worn when the sniper is operating on his own. 

(2) Field Expedients . If the desired components for the con- 
struction of a ghillie suit are not on hand, a make-shift suit can be made 
by expedient measures. The garnish can be replaced by cloth discarded from 
socks, blankets, canvas sacks, or any other material that is readily 
available. The material is then attached to the suit in the same way. 
What is important is that the texture and outline of the uniform are broken 
The cloth or any other equipment can be varied in color by using mud, 
coffee grounds, charcoal, or dye. Oil or grease should not be used because 
of their strong smell. Natural foliage helps greatly when attached to 

the artificial camouflage to blend in with the background. It can be 
attached to the uniform by elastic bands sewn to the uniform or by the use 
of large rubber bands cut from inner tubes. Care must be taken that the 
bands are not tight enough to restrict movement or the flow of blood. 
Also as foliage grows old, or the terrain changes, it must be changed. 

c. Camouflaging Equipment 



rifle 



(1) One of the objects of primary concern for camou: 
Onf* has to be careful in camouf laaina the rifle that 



25 



is not interfered with, the sight is clear, and nothing touches the barrel. 
Camouflage netting can be attached to the stock, scope and sling, then 
garnish tied in it to break up their distinctive outline. 

The M-16 and M-14 can be camouflaged in the same way ensuring that 
the rifle is fully operational. 

(2) Optical Gear such as a spoting scope and binoculars are 
camouflaged in the same manner. The stand is wrapped or draped with 
netting and then garnish is tied into it. Make sure that the outline is 
broken up and the colors blend with the terrain. The binoculars are 
wrapped to break their distinctive form. Since the glass reflects light, a 
paper hood can be slipped over the objective lens on the scope or binoculars 

(3) Packs and Web Gear . Web gear can be camouflaged by dying, 
tying garnish to it, or attaching netting with garnish. The pack can be 
camouflaged by laying a piece of netting over it, tied at the top and 
bottom. Garnish is then tied into the net to break up the outline. 

3. Geographic Areas 

a. General. One type of camouflage naturally can not be used in all 
types of terrain and geographic areas. Before operations in an area, a 
sniper should study the terrain, vegetation and lay of the land to determine 
the best possible type of personal camouflage. 

(1) Snow , tn areas with heavy snow or in wooded areas with trees 
covered with snow, a full white camouflage suit is worn. With snow on the 
ground and the trees are not covered, white trousers and green-brown tops 
are worn. A hood or veil in snow areas is very effective. Firing positions 
can be made almost totally invisible if made with care. In snow regions, 
visibility during a bright night is as good as in the day. 

(2) Desert . In sandy and desert areas, texture camouflage is 
normally not necessary, but full use of the terrain must be made to remain 
unnoticed. The hands and face should be blended into a solid tone using 
the proper camouflage stick, and a hood should be worn. 

(3) Jungle . In jungle areas, foliage, artificial camouflage, and 
camouflage stick are applied in a contrasting pattern with the texture 
relative to the terrain. The vegetation is usually very thick so more 
dependence can be made on using the natural foliage for concealment. 

4. Camouflage During Movement . 

a. Camouflage Consciousness . The sniper must be camouflage conscious 
frcm the time he departs on a mission until the time he returns. He must 
constantly observe the terrain and vegetation change. He should utilize 
shadows caused by vegetation, terrain features, and cultural features to 
remain undetected. He must master the techniques of hiding, blending, and 
deceiving. 



26 



(1) Hiding . Hiding is completely concealing yourself against 
observation by laying yourself in very thick, vegetation, under leaves, or 
however else is necessary to keep from being seen. 

(2) Blending . Blending is what is used to the greatest extent 

in camouflage, since it is not always possible to completely camouflage in 
such a way as to be indistinguishable from the surrounding area. A sniper 
must remember that his camouflage need be so near perfect that he should 
fail to be recognized through optical gear as well as with the human eye. 
He must be able to be looked at directly and not be seen. This takes much 
practice and experience. 

(3) Deceiving . In deceiving, the enemy is tricked into false 
conclusion regarding the sniper's location, intentions, or movement. By 
planting objects such as ammo cans, food cartons, or something to intrigue 
the enemy, that he may be decoyed into the open where he can be brought 
under fire. Mannequins can be used to lure the enemy sniper into firing, 
thereby revealing his position. 

5. Tracks and Tracking . 

a. General . Once a sniper has learned camouflage and concealment to 
perfection, he must go one step further. This is the aspect of him leaving 
no trace of his presence, activities or passage in or through an area. 
This is an art in itself, and is closely related to tracking, which can 
tell you in detail about the enemy around you. 

(1) Enemy Trackers or Scouts . It is said that the greatest danger 
to a sniper is not the regular enemy soldier, but in fact, is hidden booby 
traps, and the enemy scout who can hunt the sniper on his own terms. If 

an enemy patrol comes across unfamiliar tracks in it's area of operation, 
it may be possible for them to obtain local trackers. If it is a man's 
livelihood to live by hunting, he will usually be very adept at tracking. 
What a professional can read from a trail is truly phencminal. Depending 
on the terrain, he will be able to determine the exact age of the trail, 
the number of persons in the party, if they are carrying heavy loads, how 
well trained they are by how well they move, their nationality, by their 
habits and boot soles, how fast they are moving and approximately where 
they are at the moment. If a tracker determines a fresh trail to be a 
party of four, who, but recon and sniper teams move in such small groups 
behind enemy lines? The enemy will go to almost any extreme to capture 
or kill them. 

(2) Hiding Personal Signs . A modern professional tracker who 
makes his living of trailing lost children, hunters, or escaped convicts, 
was once asked, "Can a man hide his cwn trail well enough that a tracker 
cannot follow him?" The professional tracker answered, 11 N0, there is no 
way to hide a trail frcm a true tracker." The chances in combat of being 
pitted against a "real tracker" are rare, but all it takes is one time. 
This is to emphasize the importance of leaving no signs at all for the 
enemy scout to read. This is done by paying particular attention to where 
and how you walk, being sure not to walk in loose dirt or mud if it can 

be avoided, and not scuffing the feet. Walking on leaves, grass, rocks, 
etc. can help hide tracks. Trails are also made by broken vegetation 



27 



such as weeds, limbs, scrape marks on bushes, and limbs that have been 
bent in a certain direction. When moving through thick brush, gently 
move the brush forward, slip through it, then set it back to it's normal 
position. Mud or dirt particles left on rocks or exposed tree roots are 
a sign of one's presence. Even broken spider webs up to the level of a 
man's height show movement. In the process of hiding his trail, a sniper 
must remember to leave no debris such as paper, C-Ration cans, spilled 
food, etc. behind him. Empty C-Ration cans, can either be carried out, or 
smashed, buried, and camouflaged. Along this same line, a hole should be 
dug for excrement, then camouflaged. The smell of urine on grass or 
bushes lasts for many days in a hot humid environment, so a hole should 
be dug for this also* One last object of importance, the fired casings 
from the sniper rifle must always be brought back, for they are a sure 
sign of a sniper's presence. 

(3) Reading Tracks and Signs . To be proficient at tracking takes 
many years of experience, but a knowledgeable sniper can gain much information 
from signs left by the enemy. For instance, he can tell roughly the amount 
of enemy movement through a given area, what size units they move in, and 
what areas they frequent the most. If an area is found where the enemy 
slept, it may be possible to determine the size of the unit, how well 
disciplined they are, by the security that was kept, and their overall 
formation. It can be fairly certain that the enemy is well fed if pieces 
of discarded food or C-Ration cans with uneaten food in them are found. 
The opposite will also be true for an enemy with little food. Imprints in 
the dirt or grass can reveal the presence of crew-served weapons, such as 
machine guns or mortars. Also, prints of ammo cans, supplies, radio gear* 
may possibly be seen. The enemies habits may come to light by studying 
tracks so that he may be engaged at a specific time and place. 

OPPORTUNITY FOR QUESTIONS AND COMMENTS 
SUMMARY 

1. Reemphasize . During this period of instruction, we have discussed 
target indicators, types of camouflage, geographical areas, and tracks. 
Initially, we covered what a target indicator is, and that sound, movement, 
and improper camouflage make up indicators. Care must be taken that shine, 
outline, and contrast with the background are eliminated. 

We learned the different types of camouflage, such as grease paint, and 
how totone down the skin with it, the ghillie suit, used as camouflaged 
clothing, and field expedient measures for camouflaging clothing and 
equipment. In the section on geographical areas, we learned the different 
types of camouflage used in the various climate regions. 

The fourth area covered was concealment during movement and how to use 
terrain features. We learned the difference in hiding, blending, and 
deceiving, and how to use each. We learned of the danger of enemy scouts 
or trackers, and the importance of leaving no indication of one's presence 
while on a mission. Lastly, we covered what a sniper can learn from 
enemy tracks if he is observant enough to see them and takes the time to 
learn their meaning. 



28 



2. Remotivate . The job of a sniper is not for a person who just wants the 
prestige of being called a sniper. It is a very dangerous position even 
if the sniper is well trained and highly motivated. Expertise at camouflage 
to remain unnoticed takes painstaking care, and thoroughness which the wrong 
type of individual would not take time to do. If you are to be successful 
at camouflage and concealment, it takes a double portion in carefulness on 
your part, if you are to cane back alive* 

3. Concea Iment 

a. Concealed Approaches . It is essential that the natural appearance 
of the ground remains unaltered, and that any camouflage done is of the 
highest order. The sniper must also remember that though cover frcm 
view is cover frcm aimed fire, all concealment will be wasted if the sniper 
is observed as he enters the hide. It follows, therefore, that concealed 
approaches to the hide are an important consideration, and movement around 
it must be kept to a minimum. Efforts must be made to restrict entry to 
and exit from the hide prior to darkness. Track discipline must be rigidly 

I enforced . 

b. Screens . Any light shining from the rear of a hide through the 
front loophole may give the position away. It is necessary, therefore, to 
put a screen over the entrance to the hide, and also one over the loophole 
itself. The two screens must never be raised at the same time. Snipers 
must remember to lower the entrance screen as soon as they are in the hide 
and to lower the loophole screen before leaving it. These precautions 
will prevent light frcm shining directly through both openings. 

c. Loopholes . Loopholes must be camouflaged using foliage or other 
material which blends with or is natural to the surroundings. Logically, 
anything not in keeping with the surroundings will be a source of sus- 
picion to the enemy and hence a source of danger to the sniper. 

d- Urban Areas. In urban areas, a secure and quiet approach with the 
minimum number of obstacles such as crumbling wall and barking dogs is 
required. When necessary, a diversion in the form of a vehicle or house 
search can be set up to allow the sniper the use of the cover of a vehicle 
to approach the area unseen and occupy the hide. 

4. The Use Of Buildings And Hides As Fire Positions . 

a. Disadvantages . Buildings can often offer good opportunities as 
sniping posts under static conditions, they suffer, however, the great 
disadvantage that they may be the object of attention frcm the enemy's 
heavier weapons. Isolated houses will probably be singled out even if a 
sniper using it has not been detected. 

b- Preparation . Houses should be prepared for use in much the same 
way as other hides, similar precautions towards concealment being taken; 
loopholes being constructed and fire positions made. 

c. Outward Appearance . Special care must be taken not to alter the 
outward appearance of the house by opening windows or doors that were 
found closed, or by drawing back curtains. 



29 



cL Free Positions . The actual fire positions must be well back in 
the shadow of the room against which the sniper might be silhouetted, must 
be screened. 

©- Loopholes . Loopholes may be holes in windows, shutters of the roof, 
preferable those that have been made by shells of other projectiles. If 
such loopholes have be be picked out of a wall, they must be made to look 
like war damage. 

f . Observation Rest . Some form of rest for the firer and observer 
will have to be constructed in order to obtain the most accurate results. 
Furniture from the house, old mattresses, bedspreads and the like will 
serve the purpose admirably; if none of this material is available, sand- 
bags may have to be used. 



5. Firing From Hides . 

a. Fire Discipline . Fire 
undertaken at specific targets 
lead to the enemy locating the 



from a hide must be discreet and only 

Haphazard harassing fire will quickly 
hide and directing fire to it. 



b. Muzzle Flash . At dusk and dawn, the flash from a shot can usually 
be clearly seen and cars must be taken not to disclose the position of the 
hide when firing under such circumstances. 

c. Rifle Smoke . On frosty mornings and damp days, there is a great 
danger of smoke from the rifle giving the position away. On such occasions, 
the sniper must keep as far back in the hide as possible. 

d. Dust . When the surroundings are dry and dusty, the sniper must be 
careful not to cause too much dust to rise. It may be necessary to dampen 
the surroundings of the loophole and the hide when there is a danger of 
rising dust. 

6. Types of Hides . A hide can take many forms. The type of operation or 
the battle situation coupled with the task the snipers are given, plus the 
time available, the terrain and above all, the ingenuity and inventiveness 
of the snipers, will decide how basic or elaborate the hide can or must 
be. In all situations, the type of hide will differ, but the net result 
is the same, the sniper can observe and fire without being detected. 

a- Belly Hide . This type hide is best used in mobile situations or 
when the sniper doesn't plan to be in position for any extended period of 
time. Seme of the advantages and disadvantages are: 

(1) It is simple and can be quickly built. 

(2) Good when the sniper is expected to be mobile, because many 
can be made. 




(1) It is uncomfortable and cannot be occupied for long periods 



of time. 



30 



b. Enlarged Fire Trench Hide . This type hide is nothing more than an 
enlarged fighting hole with advantages being: 



(1) 

(2) 
(3) 

C4J 
comfort. 



Able to maintain a low silhouette, 

Simple to construct, 

Can be occupied by both sniper and observer, 

It can be occupied for longer periods of time with seme degree of 




(1) It is not easily entered or exited frcm. 

(2) There is no overhead cover when in firing 



n 



c. Semi-Permanent Hide. 



type hide resembles a fortified bunker 
ircumstances permit. The advantages are 



(1) Can be occupied for long periods of time, 

(2) Gives protection frcm fire and shrapnel, 

(3) Enables movement for fire and observation, 

{4) Provides seme comfort. 




(1) Takes time to construct 

(2) Equipment such as picks, shovels, axes, etc. are needed for 
construction , 



^* Shell Holes . Building a hide 
digging, but needs plenty of wood and 
is the main disadvantage of occupying 



in a shell hole saves a lot of 
rope to secure the sides. Drainage 
a shell hole as a hide. 



e. Tree Hides . In selecting trees for hides, use trees that have a 
good deep root such as oak, chestnut, hickory. During heavy winds, these 
trees tend to remain steady better than a pine which has surface roots and 
sways quite a bit in a breeze. A large tree should be used that is back 
from the wood line. This may limit your field of view, but it will better 
cover you from view. 

OPPORTUNITY FOR QUESTIONS AND COWEKTS 
SUMMARY 



1- Reemphasize . During this period of instruction, we covered the complete 
construction of hides and locating the best area of this construction. 
It should be stressed that the sniper should use his own imagination and 
initiative while constructing his hide. In conclusion, we discussed the 
various types of hides, advantages and disadvantages and in what situation 
a particular hide could be best used. 



2* Remotivate . The type of hide you build will depend on a great many 
things. Time, Terrain, Type of Operation, Enemy Situation, and Weapons, 
always construct a good defensive hide. It will keep you effective and 
keep you alive. 



So 



31 




i 



INTRODUCTION OF NIGHT VISION DEVICES 

The objective of this lesson was to enable you to engage targets during hours 
of limited visibility with the night vision device by proper mounting, operation, 
and maintenance of this piece of equipment, and explain the capabilities and 
limitations of each. 

1. In order to effectively engage targets during hours of limited visibility, 
you must knew proper procedure for mounting, operation, and operator mainte- 
nance of the NVD. 

2. The adaptor bracket must be aligned with the mounting groove on the left 
side of the receiver and tightened securely with an alien wrench before the 
sight assembly can be installed, by rotating the lock knobs counterclockwise 
until they stop on the pins on the assembly. You then slide the boresight 
onto the guide rail until it is positioned against the pinstop. The last 
step in mounting is to tighten the lock knob by turning clockwise. 

3. The first point to remember about operation of the NVD is the mercury 
battery is irritable to the eyes and other mucus membranes. Even though the 
image intensifier will turn off automatical ly to protect the observer, the 
image intensifier should never be pointed at the sun on or off. The NVD 
will always be inspected before use. The operational sequence is definite 
as should always be followed. 

4. The NVD will operate from -65°F to; -125°F and the lenses will have to 
be cleaned frequently in sandy or dusty areas and will also operate in wet 
or humid areas. 

5. Operator maintenance can be performed with the tools and equipment pro- 
vided with the exception of a screwdriver and should be followed step-by- 
step. Above all, never use lubricating materials on the NVD. 

6. To complicate training, the two scopes in the system (AN/PVS-2 and 
AN/PV5-4J have some important differences: 



a. They require different zero procedures. 

b. They have totally different reticles. 

c. They have different mounting and dismounting procedures. 



d. Windage and elevation adjustments on the AN/FVS' 
ction of the error, while adjustments on the AN/FVS' 
ction of the desired point of impact. 



2 are made in 
4 are made in 



7. At 25 meters, the point of impact for the AN/PVS-2 is 1.2 cm high and 3 8 
cm right. The AN/FVS-4 is 1.4 cm high. 



33 



AN/PVS-4 



Horizontal line from left 
point of origin 
20 feet at ranges shown. 
Range is in hundreds of meters 




Vertical lines above or 
below horizontal line 

represent 6 feet at ranges 

shown. Range is in 

hundreds of meters. 



Example: 




M14-M60 Aiming points. 
Range is in hundreds of 
meters. 

Use center of two horizontal 
lines for 0-250 meters. 



A) Distance to tank is 800 m 

B) Distance to 6 T man is 600 m 

C) Distance to 6 1 man is 200 m 



Reference: TM 11-5855-211-10 



34 






AN/PVS-2 




BLACK LINE RETICLE PATTERN 



Through experience and test firing (zeroing) , it has been 
determined that the placement of the reticle index marks produce 
the above noted range zeroing reference points. 

Using these aiming points in the center of mass of a target 
will enable the sniper to obtain a first round hit. 



Reference: TC 23-14 



35 



I 



NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE 



SCOUT/SNIPER SCHOOL 



DATE 



LITTON MODEL M-845 NIGHT VISION WEAPONS SIGHT 



1. LESSON PURPOSE. In order the SEAL sniper to engage targets during hours 
of limited visibility, he must use a night vision device. This period of 
instruction will provide you with the knowledge necessary to mount, put into 
operation, zero, and maintain the M-845 night vision device. 



I 2 . OBJECTIVES : 



a, Lesson Objective : To enable the student to mount, put into operation, 
and zero the M-845 night vision device as stated in class. 

1 b. Training Objectives. 

1. Mount the M-845. 

2. Place the NVD into operation. 

3. Zero the M-845 NVD. 
GENERAL: 

The Litton Model M-845 is a compact, lightweight, battery powered night 
vision weapons sight for small aims use in lew light conditions. 

The weapons sight is effective at both short and intermediate ranges in a 
variety of environments and conditions. Employing a state-of-the-art 18MM 
2nd generation microchannel plate image intensifier tube (light amplifier), 
the M-845 affords small arms users a completely "passive" night sighting and 
aiming capability. 

The Litton M-845 is specifically designed for use with small bore weapons, 
{7.62MM and 5.56MM calibers). The litton night vision weapons sight is the 
smallest and lightest device of its type currently used by Special Warfare. 

j The rifle sight Is furnished with a waterproof, flip-up lend cover that in- 
corporates a daylight filter. This feature permits zeroing of the weapon 
during the hours of daylight. 



NORMAL COMPLIMENT. 



a. Model M-845 night vision weapons sight 



I b. Lens cap/ daylight filter. 



37 




c. Lens cleaning tissue. 

e. Instruction and maintenance manual. 

f . 2 type E-132 mercury batteries. 

g. Thermo- formed ABS plastic transit and storage case 
h. Mounting kit with all tools and hardware for mounting the M-845 

2. CONTROLS AND ADJUSTMENTS. 

a. ON/OFF rotary switch. 

b. Diopter focus ring. 

c. Elevation adjustment knob. 

d. Windage adjustment knob, 

3. SYSTEM, 
a. Magnification 1 . 55 x 

3. ELECTRICAL. 

a. Battery life.. Approx. 40 hours (70 

b. Low battery indicator Red L.E.D. 

c. Battery type (one each) Mercury - 2.8 VDC Type 132. 

Lithium - 3.0 VDC Type 440S-BT. 

4 . MECHANICAL . 

a. Length 9.7 in. 

b. Height ...3.2 in. 

c. Width 2.6 in. 

d. Weight w/battery 2.2 lbs. 

NOTE: 

a. The litton M-845, at longer ranges (200 yards and beyond) the red dot 
will obscure a man size target. 




3Q 



. 



PRELIMINARY DATA SHEET 



4X Night Binocular, Model M975, M976 



t 



i 



♦ 



4 



System Performance 



Magnificat ion ; 
Field of Viev: 
Focus Range: 



4-2 x 

8.5 degrees 

30 m to infinitv 



Limiting Resolution: 3.0 lp/mR 



^Detection Range (m) 



Full Moon 



Man 
Tank 



Gen II 
1140 
2650 



Gen III 

1500 
4000 



Objective Lens 



Focal Length 
T -Number : 



116 mm 

2,0 



Image Intensifier 

-^■■P""L^""a:M,^"«B^ BBBBBBV H,,, BVBBBBBBBBBBVBBI _ BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBVBVBVBaBBBBBBBBBBBBl 



M975 



Type: 
Gain: 

Resolution (min) : 



Gen II pluses non-inverting 
18,000 - 25 s 000 
28 lpAnm 



Starlight /Overcast 



Gen II 

380 

950 



Gen III 
640 
1600 



M976 



Gen III, non- invert ing 
20,000 - 35,000 

28 lp/mm 



* Detection ranges are calculated from laboratory tests under controlled 
light levels. Actual field performance may vary depending on atmos- 
pheric conditions. 



39 



b. The M-845 does not have the light gathering 
night vision device. 



capabilities of the FVS-4 



c. The M-845 also does not have a range finding capability as compared to 
the PVS-4 night vision device. 



5. MOUNTING PROCEDURES. 

a. Attach the adapter to the base of the M-845 using the #10-24 x .312 L 
socket head cap screws. 

NOTE. 



The use of a thread locking compound such as 222 locktight is recommended 



b. Place the 
handle . 



adapter on the night sight into the groove in the carrying 



c. Align the tapped hole in the adapter with the hole in the handle; then 
insert and tighten the level screw assembly. 



6. ZEROING PROCEDURES. 

a. Place a target at 25 meters. 

b. Support the weapon in a stable firing position. 

c. Turn the scope on. 

d. Fire a few rounds to seat the night sight on the weapon, re tightening 
if necessary. 

e. Place the red dot over the center mass of the target and fire a three 
round group. 

f. Adjust the elevation and windage gears as required. Each click on the 
elevation or windage will move the impact of the round 0.55 in at 25 meter: 

sps e and f until the center of the impact group is at the ce: 
or until the weapon is shooting point of aim point of impact 



of the 




h. Place a target at 100 meters and repeat steps e and f [at 100 meters when 
the weapon is zeroed at 25 meters, the point of aim point of impact will be 
5 cm high) . 



NOTE: 



Each click of the elevation and windage will move the bullet impact 
distance at longer ranges. (1.2 inches/click per 100 meters). 



40 



t 



Ey ep iece Lens 



i 

i 



Exit Pupil: 

Eye Relief Distance: 
Interpupillary Distance 
Diopter Range: 



8 una 
27 mm 
55 to 71 mm 

-6 to +2 



i 



Mechanical 






Weight : 

Length x Max Width: 



Power Source 



Battery Type 



or 



or 



2 x AA (1.5 VDC) 
1 x BA-1567/u 
1 x BA-5567/u 



Other Features 



1.1 Kg with AA batteries 
240 tbib x 130 ram 



Oper at ional Life @ 20°C 



60 Hours 
30 Hours 
30 Hours 



* Daylight Training Filter incorporated in objective lens cap 

* Fully interchangeable with M972, M973 Night Vision Goggle 

* Immersion tested 1 m water for % hour 

* NBC mask compatible 



41 



BELOW: LITTON M84S MK II ELECTRON DEVICE 
RIGHT: LITTON MS 4 5 MK II AND ACCESSORIES 
BOTTOM: LITTON M975 ELECTRON DEVICE 









42 






NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE 
SCOUT SHIPER SCHOOL 

DftTE 

SNIPER EQUIPMENT 

1. Rifle, REMMINGTON MODEL 700 

The sniper rifle used by Naval Special Warfare is a bolt action, 7.62mm rifle 
with a stainless steel barrel for improved accuracy. It weighs anywhere 
from 9^ lbs to 12 lbs depending on the type stock used, [The stocks vary in 
weight from 1 lb. 10 os. to 3 lbs plus, and are constructed from fiberglass. 
The rifle is fitted with a topmounted telescope base, to which the sniper 
scope can be readily attached without special tools. 

a. Safety lever . Is located at the rear of the receiver, behind the bolt 
handle. 

b. When pulled to the rear, the weapon is on safe. 

* 

c. Bolt stop . The bolt stop release is located inside the trigger guard 
just forward of the trigger. When depressed, it allows the bolt to be removed 
frcrn the rifle, 

d. Floor plate latch . Is forward of the trigger guard and is opened by 
pressing the serrated detent on the forward edge of the trigger guard. 

e. Tabulated data . 

Caliber 7 ,62mm NATO 

Length 44 inches 

Weight .9^ lbs to 12 lbs 

Barrel length 24 inches 

Twist, right hand 6 

Lands and groves 1 turn in 12 inches 

Trigger weight 3 to 5 lbs. 

Torque , 65 inch/pounds 

Magazine capacity. , , . 5 rounds 

Max effective range. 1000 yards 

2. TELESCOPIC SIGHT. 



43 



GEKERAL, A telescopic sight is an instrument which facilitates accurate 
aiming by gse of precision gourd lenses and crosshairs in a metal body. 

1- The optical system . Is composed of a series of glass lenses which 
transmit and magnify the image of the target to the sniper. 

2 . MAG NIFICATION {Resolving power. ) The average unaided eye can distinguish 
1-inch detail at 100 yards. Magnification, combined with good optics design, 
permits resolution of this 1-inch divided by the magnification. Thus, 1/1 
inch detail can be seen at 100 yards with a lOx scope. 

3. LEWS OQATING , The Leupole & Stevens Ultra M-l lens surfaces are coated 
with a high efficiency, low reflection film. This coating increases the 
light gathering capability to approximate 91% of the available light. With 
uncoated lenses a 45% of the available light is lost in the scope. 

4. FIELD OF VI EW. Field of view is the diameter of the picture seen through 
a scope, and it is usually in "FEETT AT HUNDREDS OF YARDS." 

a. ULTRA IQx-Ml field of view @ 100 meters = 3.5 meters. 

5. TA BULATED DATA 

HEIGHT 1,4 lbs 

LENGTH 13 1/8 inches 

MAGNIFICATION lOx 

EYE RELIEF 3 inches fixed 

ADJUSTMENTS JE) + or - 45 

(W) + or - 22 . 5 

ELEVATION AND WINDAGE 1/4 minute. 90 minutes of elevation and windage 

MAIN ELEVATION 1/4 minute resolution type adjustatient 

WINDAGE. • , 4 1/4 minute resolution type adjustment 

RETICLE. , ¥ , .Mil dot duplex for range estimation and calculated 

leads on moving targets. {3/4 or 1/4 mil dot J ^ 

6. FOCUS CHECK , The tees cope should he focused to the individual's eye. 

To check the focus, point the scope at a distance scene or the sky and drape a 
white hankerchief over the objective end. Look at a distance scene with 
unaided eye for several seconds and quickly glance into the eyepiece of the 
scope. If properly focused, the reticule should appear instantly, distinct 
and sharp. If not the case, the eyepiece requires focusing. 

7 * gQ OJS OF THE EYEPIECE . To focus the eyepiece, adjust the side focus knob 
until the correct focus is achieved. 









44 



♦ 



♦ 




8. PARALLAX . Parallax is defined as the apparent movement of an object as 
seen from two different points not on line with the object. Observe a 
at a range of 300 yards. While looking through the scope, move the head 
vertically and horizontally in small increments. The reticle should not 
appear to change position on the target. If it does, parallax is present and 
the objective lens must be focused. 



■ 

i 



t 



9. PARALLAX . To focus the objective lens, adjust the side focus knob until 
the scope is free of parallax. 

10. EYE RELIEF . When issued the telescope should be set all the way forward 
in the scope mounting rings. This setting will provide the needed 2 to 3 inch 
eye relief for almost all shooters. It is possible, however, to move the 
sight slightly to achieve proper eye relief by unlocking the keeper ring to 
the rear of the scope and adjusting the rear of the scope to the desired eye 
relief. 



\ 



i 



11. THE RETICLE . The duplex reticle in the telescope provides the sniper 
with a range-finding capability. To determine range, the following formula 
is used: 

Heighth of target (in meters or yards) x 1000 
Heigth of target (in mils) = 

The dots on the fine crosshairs are 1 mil apart with a total of 5 dots from 
the center to the thick post in each direction. 

12. ELEVATION AND WINDAGE . The lOx Ml model has approximately 90 minutes of 
elevation adjustments, and 15 minutes of windage, it features friction type 
adjustments. For example, almost twice as much needed for the 7.62 nm 173 gr 
national match cartridge to reach 1000 yards. The adjustments have 1/4 
minutes clicks with both audible and tactical feedback. 



i 

\ 



45 



^ 



Model 10X-M3A Scope 




3/4 Min. Mil Dot Reticle 
Fig. #3 



fix Actual Size 



The Mil Dot Reticle is a duplex style reticle having thick outer sections and 

thin center sections. Superimposed on the thin center section of the reticles 

is a series of dots, {4 each side of the center and 4 above and below the 

center) that are spaced 1 milliradian apart, and 1 milliradian frcm both the 

center and the start of the thick section of the reticle. This spacing allows 

the user to make very accurate estimates of target range, assuming there is 

an object of known size (estimate) in the field of view. For example, a human 

target could be assumed to be about 6' tail, which equals 1.83 meters, or at 

500 meters, 3.65 dots high (nominally, about 3.5 dots high). Another example 

would be a 1 meter target at 1000 meters range would be the height between two 

dots or the width between two dots. Basically, given a good estimation of the 

objects size, it is possible to fairly accurately determine the target range 

using the mil dot system. 

J 46 



> 



NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE 



SCOUT SNIPER SCHOOL 



■ 



DATE 



OBSERVATION AIDS 



> 



I 



[ 



> 



The sniper's success is detecting targets, or the signs of enemy presence, 
is dependent on his powers of observation. To increase his ability to 
observe well, he is aided by the use of the telescope, binoculars, and 
starlight scope. 

1. OBSERVATION SCOPE. The observation telescope is a prismatic optical 
instrument of 20-power magnification. The lenses are coated with magnesium 
flouride for high light gathering capability. The scope should be carried 
by the sniper team when it is justified by their mission. The high 
magnification of the telescope makes observation and target detection possible 
when conditions would otherwise prevent it. Camouflaged targets and those 

in deep shadows can be located, troop movements can be distinguished at great 
distances, and selected targets can be identified. 

2. OPERATION. An eyepiece cap cover cap and objective lens cover are used 
to protect the optics when the telescope is not in use. Care must be taken 
to prevent cross- threading of the fine threads. 

3. FOCUS. The eyepiece focusing sleeve is turned clockwise or counter- 
clockwise until the image can be clearly seen by the operator. On other models 
the focus is adjusted by the focus knob at the bottom of the telescope. 

4. TRIPOD. The height adjusting collar is a desired height for the telescope. 
The collar is held in position by tighting the clamping screw. 



The shaft rotation locking thumb screw clamps the tripod shaft at any desirt 
azimuth. 

The elevating thumbscrew is used to adjust the of the tripod, to increase, 
or decrease the angle of elevation of the telescope. 

The tripod legs can be held in an adjusted position by tightening the screw 
nut at the upper end of each leg. 



4. SETTING UP THE SCOPE AND TRIPOD. 

on a level position on the ground. 



Spread the legs and place the tripod 



Attach the scope to the tripod by screwing the attachment screw on the tripod, 
clockwise until tight. To take the scope off the tripod, unscrew the 
attachment screw counterclockwise. 



47 



1. BINOCULARS. Each sniper team will be equipped with binoculars to aid 
in observing the enemy and in searching for and selecting targets. The 
focusing adjustments are on each eyepiece. The left monocle has a mil scale 
etched into it. 

2. METHODS OF HOLDING THE BINOCULARS. The binoculars should be held lightly 
resting on and supported by the heels of the hands. The thumbs block out 
light that would enter between the eye and the eyepiece. The eyepieces are 
held lightly to the eye to avoid transmitting body movement. Whenever possible 
a stationary rest should support the elbows. 

An alternate method for holding the binoculars is to move the hands forward, 
cupping them around the sides of the objective lenses. This keeps light 
from reflecting off the lenses, which would reveal the sniper's position. 

3. ADJUSTMENTS. The interpupillary distance is the distance between the 
eyes. The monocles are hinged together so that they can be adjusted to meet 
this distance. The hinge is adjusted until the field of vision ceases to be 
two overlapping circles and appears as single, sharply defined circle. The 
setting of the hinge scale should be recorded for future use. 




id each eye of that individual requires 

the focus for each e»w in th<= fnllnwirn 



a. With both eyes open, look through the glasses at a distance object. 

b. Place one hand over the objective lens of the right monocle and turn the 
focusing ring of the left monocle until the object is sharply defined. 

c. Uncover the right monocle and cover the left one. 

d. Rotate the focusing ring of the right monocle until the object is sharply 
defined . 

e. Uncover the left monocle. The object should then be clear to both eyes. 

f . Read the diopter scale on each focusing ring and record for future 
reference . 



(1) RETICLE. The mil scale that is etched into the left lens of the binoculars 
is called the reticle pattern and is used in adjusting artillery fire and 
determining range to a target. 

(2) Determining range with the binos is done similar to the telescope sight 
reticle. The height of the target is measured in mils. This is then divided 
into the height of the target in yards (or meters), times 1000 r to give the 
range to the target in yards (or meters) . Care should be taken to measure 
the target to the nearest 1/4 vard. 



48 



■ 



1. ADDITIONAL USES FOR BINOCULARS. In addition to observing and adjusting 
fire and range estimation, binoculars may be used to: 

a. Identify troops, equipment, vehicles, etc. 

b. Observe enemy movement or positions 



1 



c. Make visual reconnaissance 



d. Locate targets 

e. Study terrain 



f . Select routes and positions 

g. Improve night vision 



h. Improve vision in periods of reduced vision 



2. EYE FATIGUE. Prolonged use of the binoculars or telescope will cause eye 
fatigue, reducing the effectiveness of observation. Periods of observation 
with optical devices should be limited to 30 minutes by a minimum of 15 minutes 
of rest. 



1 



\ 



\ 



t 



49 



AMMJNITIOIT 



Match quality ammuntion will narnaly be issued because of its greater accuracy and 
reduced seasity to the wind. However , if match ammuntion is not available , or the 
siduation dictates grade of ammunition may have to be used. In ammunition other than 
match, accuracy and point of aim point of Impact may vary noticeably. Among different 
lots, an espectal accurate lot can be identified through use, and it should be used 
as long as it is available. 



1. DATA HATCH AJOCUEflTIOtf K11S. 



173-grain baattail bullet 



Velocity , 2, 550 feet per second. 

Accuracy Specification 3,5 feet mean radius at 600 yards. <I minute of 

angle) , 

Caliber Batch is stamped on the head, along with the year 

of production and the intitials of the arsenal 
which produced it (e.g. LX, ID. Lake city). 



DATA BALL AMXUNITIOB K80. 



147 grain bullet 



Velocity 2, 750 feet per second. 

Caliber 7.62nnn KSO and M8DE1, 

Identifiers The year of production and the arsenal ' s initials 

are stamped on the head- 

HOTE: HB0E1 is the most accurate of the ball ammunition. 

Because MATCH ammunition is heaver and slower than the other types , it is safe 
to assume that all other types of ammunition will strike higher on the target. 



51 



LAKH CITY HI 13 HATCH GRADE AKKUEITIOff WILL BE ISSUED TO THE SBIPER AND SHOULD BE 
FIRED AT ALL TIMES, VHEJf AVAILIBLE. 



52 



i 



TECHNIQUES OF OBSERVATION 



INTRODUCTION 

1- Gain Attention . The Special Warfare sniper's mission requires him to 
support combat operations by delivering precision fire from concealed 
positions to selected targets. The term "selected targets" correctly im- 
plies that the sniper is more concerned with the significance of his targets 
than with the number of them. In his process of observation, he will not 
shoot the first one available, but will index the location and identification 
of all the targets he can observe. 

2. The sniper is expected to perform several missions other than sniping. 
One of the more important is observation of the enemy and his activities. 

3. Purpose 

a - Purpose . The purpose of this period of instruction is to provide 
student with the knowledge, procedures and techniques applicable to both 
day and night time observation. 

k- M ain Ideas . The main ideas which will be discussed are the following: 

[1) Observation Capabilities and Limitations 

(2) Observation Procedures 

4. Training Objectives . At the conclusion of this period of instruction, 
the student, without the aid of references, will be able to: 

a. Describe the limitations of observation and the steps to be taken 
to overcome those limitations . 



b. Describe the use of the 
scope as an observation aid. 



telescope, 10X Ultra, and the starlight 



c. Describe the procedures used to observe and maintain observation of 
a specific area or target. 

TRANSITION . Observation is the keynote to a sniper's success. He must be 
fully aware of the human capabilities and limitations for productive obser- 
vation in waning light and in darkness and of his aids, which can enhance 
his visual powers under those conditions. 



53 



BODY 

1- Capabilities and Limitations. 

a. Night Vision . Night runs the gamut from absolute, darkness to 
bright moonlight. No matter how bright the night may appear to be, however, 
it will never permit the human eye to function with daylight precision. 
For maximum effectiveness, the sniper must apply the proven principles 
of night vision. 

(1) Darkness Adaptation . It takes the eye about 30 minutes to 
regulate itself to a marked lowering of illumination. During that time, 
the pupils are expanding and the eyes are not reliable. In instances when 
the sniper is to depart on a mission during darkness , it is recommended 
that he wear red glasses while in light areas prior to his departure. 

(2) Off -Center vs. Direct Vision . {TA #1) Off-center vision is 
the technique of focusing attention on an object without looking directly 
at it. An object under direct gaze in dim light will blur and appear to 
change shape, fade, and reappear in still another form. If the eyes are 
focused at different points around the object and about 6 to 10 degrees 
away from it, side vision will provide a true picture of the object. 

(3) Scanning . Scanning is the act of moving the eyes in short, 
abrupt, irregular changes of focus around the object of interest. The eye 
must stop momentarily at each point, of course, since it cannot see while 
moving. 



(4) Factors Affecting Night Vision 

(a) Lack of vitamin A impairs night vision 
of vitamin A will not improve night vision. 



However, overdoses 



(b) colds, headache, fatigue, narcotics, heavy smoking, and 
alcohol excess all reduce night vision. 

(c) Exposure to a bright light impairs night vision and necessi- 
tates a readaptation to darkness. 

{d) Darkness blots out detail. The sniper must learn to 
recognize objects and persons from outline alone. 

b. Twilight . During dawn and dusk, the constantly changing natural light 
level causes an equally constant process of eye adjustment. During these 
periods, the sniper must be especially alert to the treachery of half light 
and shadow. Twilight induces a false sense of security, and the sniper 

must be doubly careful for his own safety. For the same reason, the enemy 
is prone to carelessness and will frequently expose himself to the watchful 
sniper. The crosshairs of the telescopic sight are visible from about one- 
half hour prior to sunrise until about one-half hour after sunset. 

c. Illumination Aids . On occasion, the sniper may have the assistance 
of artificial illumination for observation and firing. 



54 



EXAMPLES: 

(1J Cartridge, Illuminating, M301A2 . Fixed from an 81mm mortar, 
this shell produces 50,000 candlepower of light which is sufficient for use 
of the binoculars, the spotting scope, or the rifle telescopic sight. 

(2) Searchlights . In an area illuminated by searchlight, the sniper 
can use any of the above equipment with excellent advantage. 

H) Other . Enemy campfires or lighted areas and buildings are other 
aids to the observing sniper. 

d, Observation Aids . 

(1) Binoculars . (TA #2) Of the night observation aids, bino- 
culars are the simplest and fastest to use. They are easily manipulated 
and the scope of coverage is limited only by the sniper's scanning ability. 
Each sniper team will be equipped with binoculars to aid in observing the 
enemy and in searching for and selecting targets. The binocular, M17 1, 
7 x 50, has seven power magnification and a 50mm objective lens. Focal 
adjustments are on the eyepiece with separate adjustments for each eye. 
The left monocle has a horizontal and vertical scale pattern graduated in 
mils that is visible when the binoculars are in use. 

■ 

(a) Method of Holding . Binoculars should be held lightly, 
monocles resting on and supported by the heels of the hands. The thumbs 
block out light that would enter between the eye and the eyepiece. The 
eyepieces are held lightly to the eye to avoid transmission of body move- 
ment. Whenever possible, a stationary rest should support the elbows. 

(b) Adjustments 

(1) Interpupillary Adjustment * The interpupillary distance 
(distance between the eyes) varies with individuals. The two monocles that 

make up a pair of field glasses are hinged together so that the receptive 
lenses can be centered over the pupils of the eyes. Most binoculars have a 
scale on the hinge, allowing the sniper to preset the glasses for inter- 
pupillary distance. To determine this setting, the hinge is adjusted until 
the field of vision ceases to be two overlapping circles and appears as a 
single sharply defined circle. 

(2) Focal Adjustment . Each individual and each eye of 
that individual requires different focus settings. Adjust the focus for 
each eye in the following manner: 

(a) With both eyes open, look through the glasses at 
a distant object. 

(b) Place one hand over the objective lens of the 
right monocle and turn the focusing ring to the left monocle until the 
object is sharply defined. 



55 



(c) Uncover the right monocle and cover the left one. 

(d) Rotate the focusing ring of the right monocle 
until the object is sharply defined. 

(e} Uncover the left monocle; the object should then 
be clear to both eyes. 

(f } Read the diopter scale on each focusing ring and 
record for future reference. 

(c) Reticle . The mil scale that is etched into the left 
lens of the binoculars is the reticle pattern and is used in adjusting 
artillery fire and measuring vertical distance in mils. The horizontal scale 
is divided into 10-mil increments. The zero line is the short vertical line 
that projects below the horizontal scale between two numbers "1". To measure 
the angle between two objects (such as a target and an artillary burst) , 
center the target above the zero line. Then read the number which appears 
on the scale under the artillery burst. There are two sets of mil scales, 
one above the zero on the horizontal scale, the other above the left hori- 
zontal 50-mil line on the horizontal scale. The vertical scales are divided 
into increments of 5 mils each. The vertical angle between the house and 
point A at the base of the tree is 10 mils. The third vertical scale is the 
range scale. It is used to estimate ranges from a known range but is not 
used by the sniper since he estimates his ranges by eye. 

(2) Rifle Telescopic Sight, IPX Ultra . When equipped with the 
telescopic sight, the sniper can observe up to 800 meters with varying 
effectiveness in artificial illumination. In full moonlight, it is effective 
up to 600 meters. For best results, a supported position should be used. 

(a) 10 Power. At 10 power, the field of view is more reduced 
and scanning clarity is impaired. High power can be used to distinguish 
specific objects, but scanning will lend a flat, unfocused appearance to 
terrain. 

(3) Starlight Scope . Although the function of the starlight scope 
is to provide an efficient viewing capability during the conduct of night 
conbat operations, the starlight scope does not give the width, depth, or 
clarity of daylight vision. However, the individual can see well enough 

at night to aim and fire his weapon, to observe effect of firing, the 
terrain, the enemy, and his own forces? and to perform numerous other tasks 
that confront Seal's in night combat. The starlight scope may be used by 
snipers to: 

(a) Assist sniper teams in deployment under cover of darkness 

>si tions- 



to preselected positions 



(b) Assist sniper teams to move undetected to alternate positions 

(c) Locate and suppress hostile fire. 

(d) Limit or deny the enemy movement at night. 

(e) Counter enemy sniper fire. 

56 



a. Factors Affecting Frnployment . Consideration of the factors 
affecting employment and proper use of the starlight scope will permit more 
effective execution of night operations. The. degree to which these factors 
aid or limit the operational capabilities of the starlight scope will vary 
depending on the light level, weather conditions, operator eye fatigue, and 
terrain over which the starlight scope is being employed. 

(1) Light . Since the starlight scope is designed to function 
using the ambient light of the night sky, the most effective operation can 
be expected under conditions of bright moonlight and starlight. As the 
ambient light level decreases, the viewing capabilities of the starlight 
scope diminsion. When the sky is overcast and the ambient light level is 
low, the viewing capabilities of the starlight scope can be greatly increased 
by the use of flares, illuminating shells or searchlight. 

(2} Weather Conditions . Clear nights provide the most favorable 
operating conditions in that sleet, snow, smoke, or fog affect the viewing 
capabilities of the starlight scope. Even so, the starlight scope can be 
expected to provide some degree or viewing capability in adverse weather 
conditions . 

(3) Terrain. Different terrain will have an adverse effect 

— ■ ■ ■ ■ 

on the starlight scope due to the varying ambient light conditions which 
exist. It will be the sniper's responsibility to avaluate these conditions 
and know how each will affect his ability to observe and shoot. 

(4) Eye Fatigue . Most operators will initially experience eye 
fatigue after five or ten minutes of continuous observation through the 
starlight scope. To aid in maintaining a continued viewing capability and 
lessen eye fatigue, the operator may alternate eyes during the viewing period. 

4. Observation Telescope . The observation telescope is a prismatic optical 
instrument of 20-power magnification. It is carried by the sniper teams 
whenever justified by the nature of a mission. The lens of the telescope 
are coated with a hard film of magnesium f louride for maximum light trans- 
mission. This coating together with the high magnification of the tele- 
scope makes observation and target detection possible when conditions or 
situations would otherwise prevent positive target identification. Camou- 
flaged targets and those in deep shadows can be distinguished, troop move- 
ments can be observed at great distances, and selective targets can be 
identified more readily. 



a. Operation . The eyepiece cover cap and objective lens cover must 
be unscrewed and removed from the telescope before it can be used. The cap 
and cover protect the optics when the telescope is not in use. The eyepiece 
focusing sleeve is turned clockwise or counterclockwise until the image can 
be carefully seen by the operator. CAUTION : Care must be taken to prevent 
cross- threading of the fine threads. 

(2) Observation Procedures . The sniper, having settled into 
the best obtainable position, is ready to search his chosen area. The pro- 
cess of observation is planned and systematic. His first consideration is 
towards the discovery of any immediate danger to himself, so he begins with 
a "hasty search" of the entire area. This is followed by a slow, deliberate 



57 



observation which he calls a "detailed search" . Then, as long as he remains 
in position, the sniper maintains a constant observation of the area using 
the hasty and detailed search methods as the occasion requires. 

(a) Hasty Search . This is a very rapid check for enemy 
activity conducted by both the sniper and the observer. The observer 

makes the search with the 7 x 50 binoculars, making quick glances at specific 
points throughout the area, not by a sweep of the terrain in one continuous 
panoramic view. The 7 x 50 binoculars are used in this type search because 
they afford the observer with the wide field of view necessary to cover a 
large area in a short time. The hasty search is effective because the eyes 
are sensitive to any slight movements occurring within a wide arc of the 
object upon which they are focused. The sniper, when conducting his hasty 
search, uses this faculty called "side vision" or "seeing out of the corner 
of the eye 1 '. The eyes must be focused on a specific point in order to have 
this sensitivity. 

(b) Detailed Search. 

—i ■ 1 1 ■ ■ ■ ■ m n ■ ■ "■ 

[1) If the sniper and his partner fail to locate the enemy 
during the hasty search, they must then begin a systematic examination known 
as the 50 -meter overlapping strip method of search. Again the observer con- 
ducts this search with the 7 x 50 binoculars, affording him the widest 
view available. Normally, the area nearest the sniper offers the greatest 
potential danger to him. Therefore, the search should begin with the terrain 
nearest the observer's location. Beginning at either flank, the observer 
should systematically search the terrain to his front in a 180-degree arc, 

50 meters in depth. After reaching the opposite flank, the observer should 
search the next area nearest his position. This search should cover the 
terrain includes about ten meters of the area examined during the first 
search. This technique ensures complete coverage of the area. Only when a 
target appears does the observer use the observation scope to get a more 
detailed and precise description of the target. The observation scope 
should not be used to conduct either the hasty or detailed search as it 
limits the observer with such a small field of view. The observer continues 
searching from one flank to the other in 50-meter overlapping strips as far 
out as he can see. 

(2) To again take advantage of his side vision, the 
observer should focus his eyes on specific points as he searches frcm one 
flank to the other. He should make mental notes of prominent terrain 
features and areas that may offer cover and/or concealment to the enemy. 
In this way, he becomes familiar with the terrain as he searches it. 

(c) Maintaining Observation 

(1) Method . After completing his detailed search, the sniper 
may be required to maintain observation of the area. TO do this, he should 
use a method similar to his nasty search of the area. That is, he uses 
quick glances at various points throughout the entire area, focusing his 
eyes on specific features. 

(2) Sequence . In maintaining observation of the area, he 
should devise a set sequence of searching to ensure coverage of all terrain. 



58 



Since it is entirely possible that this hasty search may fail to detect 
the initial movement of an enemy, the observer should periodically repe, 
a detailed search. A detailed search should also be conducted any time 
attention of the observer is distracted. 



the 



OPPORTUNITY FOR QUESTIONS 



SUMMARY 



1. Reemphasize . During this period of instruction, we have discussed the 
capabilities and limitations of observation during the hours of both day- 
light and dark. The different techniques and aids of improving your vision 
were discussed. 

We covered the night observation aids that are availalbe to the sniper. 
It was noted that the binoculars are the simplest and fastest to use. The 
starlight scope was diseassed in detail as to it's employment and those 
factors affecting it's employment. 

In conclusion, details of observation procedures were covered. The 
"Hasty Search" is understood to be the first search conducted by the sniper 
once he moves into position as this search is conducted to discover any 
immediate danger to him. 

2". Remotivate . Your ability to become proficient in the techniques 
mentioned will allow you to see the enemy before he sees you and get that 
first round off. 



59 



wm 



w^^m 



mn^Hi 



hm«« 







5f.V 



RANGE CARD, LOG BOOK AND 
FIELD SKETCHING 

DETAILED OUTLINE 

I NTRODUCTION 

1. Gain Attention . The primary mission of Seal sniper is to deliver 
precision fire on selected targets from concealed positions. His secondary 
mission is to collect information about the enemy. To do this, he must 
primarily be observant, first to locate prospective targets and second to 
be able to identify what he sees. However observant he may be, the sniper 
cannot be expected to exercise the sheer feat of memory necessary to 
remember the ranges to all possible targets within his area of observation, 
or to recall all tidbits of information he may come across. The means 
designed to assist him in this task are the range card, the log book and 
the field sketch. 

2. Today you are going to learn how to record the data which you will 
need to accomplish both your primary and your secondary mission, thereby 
greatly enhancing your chance of achieving a first round hit and of 
collecting useful and useable raw intelligence. 




a. Purpose . To introduce you to the range card, log book and field 
sketch as used by the sniper in recording range estimates and in collecting 
information about the enernv. 



b. Main Ideas . To describe the preparation of range cards 



and their 
field 
for 



relationship to field sketches, and to teach how to draw adequate 
sketches. Also to teach the components of various tactical repor 
inclusion in the sniper log book. 

4. Training Objectives . Upon completion of this period of instruction, 
the student will be able to: 



a. Prepare a Range Card 

b. Prepare a Log Book 

c. Prepare a Field Sketch 



61 



BODY 

1. The range card is a handy reference which the sniper uses to make rapid, 
accurate estimates of range to targets which he may locate in the course 
of his observations. 

a. (Show slide #1, Field Expedient Range Card) This slide illustrates 
a range card which a sniper might have prepared after his arrival at a 
point of observation. The card is drawn freehand and contains the following 
information : 

(1) Relative locations of dominating objects and terrain features. 



ects 



(2) Carefully estimated, or map measured, ranges to the obj 
or features. 

(3) The sniper's sight setting and holds for each range. 

b. {Show slide # 2, Prepared Range Card) Prior to departure on a mission, 
the sniper can prepare a better range card, shown here. Upon arrival 

in position, he draws in terrain features and dominant objects. To avoid 
preparing several cards for use in successive positions, the sniper can 
cover a single card with acetate and use a grease pencil to draw in the 
area features. Copies of the prepared range card should be prepared and 
used whenever possible. 

c. Use of the Range Card 

f 1 J Holding . (Show slide # 2, Prepared Range Card) The sniper 
locates a target in the doorway of the house at 10 o'clock from his posi- 
tion. From his card, he quickly determines a range of 450 yards and holds 
at crotch level. He centers the crosshairs on the crotch, fires, and hits 
the target in the center of the chest. 



(2) Sight Setting . The sniper locates a 
the house at one o'clock from his position. He notes 
applies that sight setting, and fires. 




on the roof of 
the sight setting 61, 



2. The Field Sketch . 

a. The field sketch is a drawn reproduction of a view obtained from 
any given point, and it is vital to the value of a sniper's log and range 
card, that he be able to produce such a sketch. As is the case for all 
drawings, artistic ability is an asset, but satisfactory sketches can be 
produced by anyone, regardless of artistic skill. Practice is, however, 
essential and the following principles must be observed: 

(1) Work from the whole to the part. Study the ground first 
carefully both by eye and with binoculars before attempting a drawing. 
Decide how much of the country is to be included in the sketch. Select 
the major features which will form the framework of the panorama. 

(2) Do not attempt to put too much detail into the drawing. 
Minor features should be omitted, unless they are of tactical importance, 



62 



or are required to lead the eye to some adjacent feature of tactical 
importance. Only practice will show how much detail should be included 
and how much left out. 

(3) Draw everything in perspective as far as possible, 
b. Perspective . The general principles of perspective are: 

(1} The farther away an object is in nature, the smaller it shoul 
appear in the drawing. 

(2) Parallel lines receding from the observer appear to converger 
if prolonged, they will meet in a point called the "vanishing point." 
The vanishing point may always be assumed to be on the same plane as the 
parallel lines. Thus, railway lines on a perfectly horizontal, or flat, 
surface, receding from the observer will appear to meet at a point on the 
horizon. If the plane on which the railway lines lie is tilted either up 
or down, the vanishing point appears to be similarly raised or lowered. 
(Slide # 3) Thus, the edges of a road running uphill and away from the 
observer will appear to converge on a vanishing point above the horizon, 
and if running downhill, the vanishing point will appear to be below the 
horizon. (Slide #4) 

c - Conventional Shapes . Roads and all natural objects, such as trees 
and hedges, should be shown by conventional outline, except where 
peculiarities of shape make them useful landmarks and suitable as refer- 
ence points. This means that the tendency to draw actual shapes seen 
should be suppressed, and conventional shapes used, as they are easy to 
draw and convey the required impression. Buildings should normally be 
shown by conventional outline only, but acutal shapes may be shown, when 
this is necessary to ensure recognition, or to emphasize a feature of a 
building which is of tactical importance. The filling in of outlines 
with shadowing, or hatching, should generally be avoided, but a light 
hatch may sometimes be used to distinguish wooded areas frcm fields . 
Lines must be firm and continuous. 

d. Equipment. The sniper should have with him the followina items: 



(1) Suitable paper in a book with a stiff cover to give a reasonable 
drawing surface. 

(2) A pencil, preferably a No. 2 pencil with eraser 

(3) A knife or razor blade to sharpen the pencil 

(4) A protractor or ruler, and 

(5) A piece of string 15" long. 

e * Extent of Country to be Included . A convenient method of making a 
decision as to the extent of the country to be drawn in a sketch is to hold 
a protractor about 11 inches from the eyes, close one eye, and consider 
the section of the country thus covered by the protractor to be the area 
sketched. The extent of this area mav be increased nr HpnTPAcp^ v, v mr»Hnrr 



63 



the protractor nearer to, or farther away from, the eyes. Once the most 
satisfactory distance has been chosen, it must be kept constant by a piece 
of string attached to the protractor and held between the teeth. 

f . Framework and Scale . The next step is to mark on the paper all 
outstanding points in the landscape in their correct relative positions* 
This is done by noting the horizontal distance of these points frcm the 
edge of the area to be drawn, and their vertical distance above the bottcm 
line of this area, or below the horizon. If the horizontal length of the 
sketch is the same size as the horizontal length of the straight edge of 
the protractor, the horizontal distances in the picture may be gotten by 
lowering or raising the protractor and noting which graduations on its 
straight edge coincide with the feature to be plotted; the protractor can 
then be laid on the paper and the position of the feature marked against 
the graduation noted. The same can be done with vertical distances by 
turning the straight edge of the protractor to the vertical position. 

9- Scale . The eye appears to exaggerate the vertical scale of what 
it sees, relative to the horizontal scale, i. e. things look taller than 
they are. It is preferable, therefore, in field sketching to use a larger 
scale for vertical distances than for horizontal, in order to preserve the 
aspect of things as they appear to the viewer. A suitable exaggeration of 
the vertical scale relative to the horizontal is 2:1, which means that 
every vertical measurement taken to fix the outstanding points are plotted 
as read. 



h. Filling in the Detail . When all the important features have been 
plotted on the paper in their correct relative positions, the intermediate 
detail is added, either by eye, or by further measurement from these plotted 
points. In this way, the sketch will be built up upon a framework. All the 
original lines should be drawn in lightly. When the work is completed, 
it must be examined carefully and compared with the landscape, to make sure 
that no detail of military significance has been emitted. The work may 
now be drawn in more firmly with darker lines, bearing in mind that the 
pencil lines should become darker and f inner as they approach the foreground, 

i. Conventional Representation of Features . The following methods of 
representing natural objects in a conventional manner should be borne in 
mind when making the sketch: 

(I) Prominent Features . The actual shape of all prominent features 
which might readily be selected as reference points when describing tar- 
gets, such as oddly shaped trees, outstanding building, towers, etc... should 
be shown if possible. They must be accentuated with an arrow and a line 
with a description, e. g. Prominent tree with large withered branch. 



be used. 



(2) Rivers . Two lines diminishing in width as they recede should 



(3) Trees . These should be represented by outline only. Seme 
attempt should be made to show characteristic shape of individual trees 
in the foreground. 



64 







(4) Moods . Woods in the distance should be shown by outline only. 
In the foreground, the tops of individual trees may be indicated. Woods 
may be shaded, the depth of shadowing becomes less with distance. 

(5) Roads . Roads should be shown by a double continuous line 
diminishing in width as it recedes. 

C6) Railways . In the foreground, railways should be shown by 
a double line with small cross lines (which represent the ties) to distin- 
guish them from roads; in the distance, they will be indicated by a single 
line with vertical ticks to represent the telegraph poles. 

(7) Churches . Churches should be shown on outline only r but care 
should be taken to denote whether they have a tower or a spire. 

(8) Towns and Villages . Definite rectangular shapes denote 
houses; towers, factory chimneys and prominent buildings should be indicated 
where they occur. 

(9) Cuts and Fills. These may be shown by the usual topographic 
symbols, ticks diminishing in thickness from top to bottom, and with a 
firm line running along the top of the slope in the case of a cut. 

(10) Swamps and Marshland . They may be shown by the conventional 
topographic symbols. 

j. Other Methods of Field Sketching . 

(1) The Grid Window. A simple device which can help a great deal 
in field sketching can be made by taking a piece of cardboard or hard 
plastic and cutting out of the center of it, a rectangle 6" x 2". A piece 
of clear plastic sheeting or celluloid is then pasted over the rectangle. 

A grid of squares of V size is drawn on the plastic sheeting. You now 
have a ruled plastic window through which the landscape can be viewed. 
The paper on which the drawing is to be made is ruled with a similiar 
grid of squares. If the frame is held at a fixed distance from the eye 
by a piece of string held in the teeth, the detail seen can be transferred 
to the paper square' by square . 

(2) The Compass Met hod. Another method is to divide the paper 
into strips by drawing vertical lines denoting a fixed number of mils of 
arc and plotting the position of important features by taking compass 
bearings to them. This method is accurate but slow. 

3. The Sniper Log Book . The sniper log is a factual, chronological record 
of his employment, which will be a permanent source of operational data. 
It will provide information to intelligence personnel, unit commanders, 
other snipers and the sniper himself. Highly developed powers of observation 
are essential to the sniper, as explained in earlier lessons. Because of 
this, he is an important source of intelligence whose reports may influence 
future operations, and upon which many lives may depend. 

a. Data to be Recorded . The log will contain at a minimum, the 
following information: 



65 



(1) Names of observers, 

(2) Hours of observation, 

(3) Data and Position [Grid Coordinates) 

(4) Visibility 

(5) Numbered observations in chronological order, 

(6) Time of observation, 

{7} Grid reference of observation, 

{8) Object seen, and 

(9) Remarks or action taken. 



b. Supplementary Materials . The sniper log is always used in conjunction 



with the field sketch. 

account of what he saw, 
where he sighted or sus 
place, the new observer 
paring the field sketch 
grid coordinates. 



In this way, not only does the sniper have a written 
but also a pictorial reference showing exactly 
pected enemy activity. If he is then relieved in 
can more easily locate earlier sightings, by corn- 
to the landscape, than he could solely by use of 



OPPORTUNITY FOR QUESTIONS AND COMMENTS 



SUMMARY 



1. Reenphasize . During this period of instruction, we have looked at 
the Range Card, The Field Sketch, and The Log Book. Each was presented 
as an entity in itself and as how each related to the other. 

2. Remotivate . The primary and secondary missions of the sniper were 
mentioned at the beginning of this class. The primary mission can be ful- 
filled without use of a log book and the secondary mission can be accomplished 
without recourse to a range card. However, to be a complete Seal Scout/ 
Sniper, you must be able to prepare a useable field sketch and range card 

to ensure accurate shooting and a thorough log book to collect all available 
intelligence data. 



66 



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^'■■MI^HlVWfnf^P^^^^V^MPMP^VPIMHBW^H^^IVIIVIBIIIIIIP^^U^^MHVMvH 



SNIPERS RANGE CARD 




RANGE 



1000 



900 



MO 



700 



600 



500 



400 



300 



200 



100 



200 



300 



400 500 



| — w w , 



600 



700 



800 



900 



1000 



RANGE 



GRID COORDINATE OF POSITIONS 
METHOD OF OBTAINING RANGE 



MADE OUT BY 
DATE 



■M^^^B^^^pvvn 



^p^^^"^^^" 



SIGHTING, AIMING AND TRIGGER CONTROL 



INTRODUCTION 



I 



1. Gain- Attention . The first of the basic marksmanship fundamentals taught 
to the shooter are sighting, aiming and trigger control. The reason for this 
is that without an understanding of the fundamentals, a sniper will not be 
able to accomplish his primary mission. 

2. Motivate . During your eight weeks here at the school, you will be taught 
individual movement, cover and concealment, map reading and many other 
related sniper skills, in addition to marksmanship. By the time you graduate, 
you will be able to move to a sniper position, fire a shot and withdraw, all 
without being observed. However, all this will be to no avail if, because 
you do not understand the principles of sighting, aiming and trigger control, 
you miss your target when you do fire. 

3. State Purpose and Main Ideas . 

A - Purpose . To introduce the student to the principles of sighting, 
aiming and trigger control as applied to the sniper rifle with telescopic 
sight . 

B. Main Ideas . 

(1) Sighting and aiming will be discussed in three phases: 

(a) The relationship between the eye and the sights 

(b) Sight picture 

(c) Breathing 

(2) Trigger control will be explained through smooth action, 
interrupted pull, concentration and follow- through. 



4, Training Objectives . Upon completion 
the student will be able to: 



period of instruction, 



1 



A. Understand and demonstrate the sighting error know 
effect" ; 

B. Understand and demonstrate "Quartering" the target 

C. Understand and demonstrate proper trigger control. 



\ 



69 



TRANSITION . The arrangement of an optical sight allows for aiming without 
recourse to organic rifle sights. The role of the front sight in a telescope 
is fulfilled by the crosshairs. Because of the crosshairs and the image of 
the target are in the focal plane of the lens, the shooter can use both at 
the same time and with equal clarity. 

BODY 



A. Aiming 

(1) Relationship between the eye and the sights . In order to see 
what is required during aiming, the shooter must know how to use his eye. 
Variations in the positions of the eye to the telescope will cause variations 
in the image received by the eye. The placement of eye in this respect is 
called eye relief. Proper eye relief is approximately 2-3 inches frcsn the 
exit pupil of the telescope, and can be determined to be correct when the 
shooter has a full field of view in the telescope with no shadows. If the 
sniper's eye is located without proper eye relief, a circular shadow will 
occur in the field of vision, reducing the field size, hindering observation, 
and, in general, making aiming difficult. If the eye is shifted to one side 
or another of the exit pupil, cresent shaped shadows will appear on the edges 
of the eyepiece (TP #1 Shadow Effects). If these cresent shaped shadows 
appear, the bullet will strike to the side away from the shadow. Therefore, 
when the sniper has a full field of view and is focusing on the intersection 
of the crosshairs, he has aligned his sight. 

(2) Sight Picture . With the telescopic sight, this is achieved when 
the crosshairs are centered on the target, and the target has been quartered. 
(Place on TP #3, Sample Sight Pictures). This transparency shows samples of 

different types of sight pictures. In each case, you can see that the target 
has been quartered to maximize the chance of a first round hit. 

(3) Breathing . The control of breathing is critical to the aiming 
process. If the sniper breathes while aiming, the rising and falling of his 
chest will cause the muzzle to move vertically. To breath properly during 
aiming, the sniper inhales, then exhales normally and stops at the moment of 
natural respiratory pause. The pause can be extended to 8-10 seconds, but it 
should never be extended until it feels uncomfortable. As the body begins to 
need air, the muscles will start a slight involuntary movement, and the eyes 
will loose their ability to focus critically. If the sniper has been holding 
his breath for more than 8-10 seconds, he should resume normal breathing and 
then start the aimina Drocess over aoain. 



B. Trigger Control 

(1) The art of firing your rifle without disturbing the perfected 
aim is the most important fundamental of marksmanship. Not hitting where you 
aim is usually caused by the aim being disturbed just before or as the bullet 
leaves the barrel. This can be caused by jerking the trigger or flinching as 
the rifle fires. A shooter can correct these errors by using the correct 
technique of trigger control . 

(2) Controlling the trigger is a mental process, while pulling the 
trigger is a physical one. Two methods of trigger control used with the 
sniper rifle are smooth action and interrupted pull. 

70 




' 



\ 



I 



p 

\ 



(a) Using the smooth action method, the shooter takes up the 
initial pressure, or free play, in the trigger. Then, when the aim is per- 
fected, increases the pressure smoothly until the rifle fires. 

(b) When using the interrupted method of trigger pull, the 
shooter takes up the initial pressure and begins to squeeze off the shot 
when the aim is perfected. However, because of target movement or weapon 
movement, he pauses in his trigger squeeze until the movement stops, then 
continues to squeeze until the weapon fires. 

(c) Triqqer Control Developed as a Reflex. The shooter can 
develop his trigger control to the point that pulling the trigger no longer 
requires- conscious effort. The shooter will be aware of the pull, but he 
will not consciously be directing it. A close analogy to trigger control 
can be found in typing. When first learning to type, the typist reads the 
alphabetic letter to be typed, mentally selects the corresponding key, and 
consciously directs a finger to strike the key. After training and practice, 
however, the typist will see the letter which has to be typed and the finger 
will hit it automatically. This then, is a conditioned reflex; conditioned 
because it was built in and reflex because it was not consciously directed. 

The same type of conditioned reflex can be developed by the sniper. 
When he first starts firing, he must consciously direct his finger to squeeze 
the trigger as soon as the aim is perfected. As a result of training, how- 
ever, a circuit will be established between the eye and the trigger finger. 
The eye, seeing the desired sight picture, will cause the finger to squeeze 
the trigger without conscious mental effort. The shooter, like the typist is 
aware of pressure against the trigger, but is not planning or consciously 
directing it. 

(d) Developing Trigger Control . In all positions, one of the 
best methods for developing proper trigger control is through dry firing, 
for here the shooter is able to detect his own errors without having recoil 
conceal undesirable movements . Only through patience, hard work, concen- 
tration and great self -discipline will the mastery of trigger control be 
achieved. 

(3) Factors Affecting Trigger Control . 

(a) Concentration . The shooter's concentration should be 
focused on the perfection of aim, as trigger control is applied. Concentra- 
tion defined as the will to demand obedience, is the most important factor 
in the technique of trigger control. 

(b) Placement of the Trigger Finger and Grip on the Rifle . 
The finger should be placed on the trigger in the same place each time. 
Only through practice can the shooter determine which part of his finger 
should go on which spot on the trigger. Any position of the finger in 
relation to the trigger is acceptable so long as the shooter can pull the 
trigger straight to the rear. 

Moreover, in order to achieve a smooth, consistent trigger squeeze, the 
stock must be grasped firmly and in the same place each time. 



71 



(c) Fol low-Through . Follow- through means doing the same things 
after each shot is fired, thereby insuring that there is no undue movement of 
the rifle before the bullet leaves the barrel. The shooter continues to hold 
his breath, to focus on the crosshairs and to practice trigger control even 
though the rifle has already fired. By doing this, the shooter can detect 
any errors in sight alignment and sight picture and he can correct them after 
fol low- through has been completed. 



OPPORTUNITY FOR QUESTIONS AND CONSENTS 



[1 MIN) 



SUMMARY 



(1 MIN) 



1. Reemphasize . We have just covered the marksmanship fundamentals of 
sighting, aiming and trigger control, and how to apply them properly. 



2. Reraotivate . 

conditions will 
these principles 



Your ability to hit a target at any range and under any 
be a measure of how well you have practiced and mastered 



72 



I 



I 



CORRECTING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS 



1. PURPOSE. In the case of the highly trained sniper, effects of the 
weather are a primary cause of error in the strike of the bullet. The wind, 
mirage, light, temperature, and humidity all have effects on the bullet, 
the sniper, or both. Seme effects are insignificant depending on the average 
conditions of sniper employment. However, sniping is accomplished under 
extreme of weather and therefore all effects must be considered. The 
observation telescope will not only assist you in detecting well camouflaged 
targets, it may also be used to read mirage. This two hour conference will 
provide you with the necessary information to compensate for the effects 
of wind and weather and to properly use the observation telescope. 



2. OBJECTIVES: 



a. Training Objective . To enable the sniper to explain the effec 
wind and weather on the strike of the bullet and how to compensate for 
effects and use the observation telescope in accordance with TC 23-14. 



b. Training Objective . As a 

the following training objectives 
in class: 



student in a field environment, accomplish 
in accordance with TC 23-14 and as discussed 



(1) Explain the effects of wind. 

(2) Explain the effects of mirage. 

(3) Explain the effects of temperature. 

(4) Explain the effects of light. 

(5) Explain the effects of humidity and 

(6) Use the observer's telescope. 



73 



The objective of this lesson was to enable you to explain the effects of 
wind and weather on the strike of the bullet and how to compensate for these 
effects, and to use the observation telescope in accordance with TC 23-14. 

a- The conditions which constantly present the greatest problem to 
the sniper is the wind. The flag, drop field expedient, or clock themth may 
be used to estimate wind velocity. However, the most accurate method of 
determining wind velocity is by eading mirage. 



b. To determine wind velocity using 
the angle the range flag (or light object 
from the verticle by a constant of 4. 




the flag (or drop) method, divide 
dropped from the shoulder) makes 



r «J'»P 







&.; 16 AAPH 



c. To determine the number of clicks necessary to compensate from the 
wind, using either iron sight or scope, the following formulas are used 

(1) For Ml 18 NM anmunition use: 

RxV = Number of clicks for a full value wind 
10 

(2) For M80 ball ammunition use: 

RxV = Minutes of angle for a full value wind 
15 



NOTE: For rantes less than or equal to 500 yards; beyond 500 yards constant 
15 changes to bullet velocity loss. 



RANGE 



CONSTANT 



600 
700 
800 
900 
1,000 



14 
13 
13 

12 
11 



74 



d. Using M80 ball ammunition, the answer in minutes of angle must be 
multiplied times 2 to determine clicks. 

e. For a half value wind, divide clicks by 2 . 

f . To determine the amount of "hold-off 11 needed to compensate for the 
wind the following formula is used. 

CxR = Inches of hold-off 



C: Is 

R: Is 

converts to 5) 

V: Is 



the number of clicks. 

the range to the target in nearest hundreds (i.e 

the wind velocity in MPH. 



500 yards, 



g. Field expedient method 



WIND 



EFFECTS 



, 



01-03 
04-07 
08-12 
13-18 
19-24 



Direction of wind shown by smoke but not by flag. 

Wind felt on face, leaves rustle. 

Leaves and small twigs in constant motion. 

Raises dust and loose paper; small branches are moved 

Small tree in leaf being to sway. 



h. There are three types of mirage 



SLOW 



FAST 



BOILING 



0-7 MPH 



8-15 MPH 



No value 



Mirage also has density, in addition to direction 



THICK 



THIN 



High Temperature, 
High Humidity, 
Bright Light 



Low Temperature and/or 
Low Light 



i. To read mirage, the sniper/observer focuses his spotting scope at 
mid- range . 



(1) At 300 yards, a +20 
a +1 minute of angel change. * 

(2) At 600 yards, a +15 
a +1 minute of angle change. * 



degree change in temperature necessitates 



degree change in temperature necessitates 



(3) At 1,000 meters, a 10 
ute of angle change. * 



degree change in temperature necessitates 



75 



*NOTE: Remember that 1 minute of angle = 2 clicks. 

j . The rule of thumb for temperature correction is temperature up, 
sights down and temperature down, sights up. 

k. The rule of thumb for humidity is humidity up, sights up and hu 
down, siahts dawn. 



1. The rule of thumb for changes in light conditions is lights up, 
sights up and light down, sights down, 

m. Elevation above sea level can have an important effect on bullet 
trajectories. At higher elevations, both air density and temperature de- 
creases, and air drag on the bullet decreases. At higher elevations, the 
sniper has a tendency to shoot high. 

n. The observer's telescope not only aids the sniper in detecting 
targets, it is also a valuable tool in reading mirage. The observer tele^ 
scope, when reading mirage, is focused at mid-range. 



76 



f 



\ 



} 



APPLICATION OF FIRE 



1. PURPOSE: Under normal conditions, all sniping occurs over unknown dis- 
tances. Without a thorough grounding in the practical application of ex- 
ternal ballistics, it is unlikely that a sniper will be capable of hitting 
his targets at any point but the shortest ranges. This lesson concerns 
itself with the fundamentals of unknown distance shooting and the application 
of exterior ballistics. 

2 . OBJECTIVES : 



a. Objective , To enable the sniper to apply the fundamentals of 
exterior ballistics in the engagement of targets at unknown distances to 
include; definition and application of minute of angle corrections, minute 
of angle conversions, indication of targets and fire control orders, and 
practical application of exterior ballistics for firing over ground and 
computing hit probability. 

b. Training Objectives . As a sniper demonstrate the application of the 
following training objectives in accordance with FMFM 1-3B and TC 23-14, 

(1) Calculate minute of angle corrections and conversions. 



\ 



(2) Define the components and the factors which influence a bullet's 
trajectory. 

{3) Demonstrate the indication of targets at unknown distances. 



i 

i 



I 



* 



I 



77 



APPLICATION OF FIRE 



1. A minute of angle [MOA) is an angular measure which subtends l/60th of 
one degree of arc; and for practical purposes is the equivalent of one (1) 
inch per 100 yards of range, ie, 1 MOA = 3 inches at 300 yards, or 3 cm 
per 100 meters of range, ie, 5 MOA = 75 cm at 500 meters. 

2. To determine minutes of correction, divide the error in inches or 
centimeters by the whole number of the range in hundreds of yards or meters 



MINUTTES ^ 



ERROR 



RANGE 



3. To convert mils to minutes of angle, multiply minutes mils by 3.375. 

1 Mil = 3.375 Minutes 

4. Trajectory is the path a bullet follows when fired from a weapon. 

5. The factors which influence trajectory are: 

a. The initial (muzzle) velocity. 

b. The angle of departure. 

c. Air resistance. 

d. The rotation of the projectile about its axis. 



e. Gravity. 

6. Angle of departure is the elevation in minutes or 
imparted to the barrel through sight corrections, in < 
will strike a target at a specific distance. 




s that must be 
that the bullet 



1 . Angle of departure, and therefore point of impact, is not constant and 
is affected by four (4) variables: 

a. Variations in initial velocity due to imperfections of ammunition. 



in aiming 




c. Imperfections in the rifle. 

d. Errors in holding and canting the rifle 



78 



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f 



I 



I 



> 



8. Air resistance is the most significant factor in trajectory. 

9. Maximum ordinate is the highest point of the trajectory. It divides 
the trajectory into the rising branch and the falling branch. 

10. Point of aim is the point where the line of sight meets the target. 

11. Point of impact is the point where the bullet strikes the target. 

12. There are two (2) danger spaces : 

a. The distance in front of the muzzle, within which the bullet does 
not rise higher than the object fired at, is called the danger space of the 
rising branch. 



b. The distance beyond the maximum ordinate, within which the bullet 
f drops from the height of the target to below target level, is the danger 
• space of the falling branch. This is divided into the danger space in front 
I of the target, and danger space behind the target, with the height of the 

point of aim as the dividing point. 

13. The extent of the danger space is dependent upon: 
' a. Height of the firer. 

b. Height of the target. 

c. The f lawlessness of the trajectory. 

d. The angle of the line of sight* 

e. The slope of the ground where the target resides. 

14. There are three {3) methods of indicating targets: 

a. Direct method. 

b. Reference point method. 

c. Clock ray method. 

15. When indicating targets, the following information must be given: 

a . Range . 

b. Corrections - For wind, leads, or hold off. 

c . I ndications . 

16. The sniper team must learn to work together in such a manner so that 
each knows exactly what the other means in as few words as possible. 

/ Before the sniper fires he must ensure that the observer is ready to "read" 
I the shot. 



79 



17. The sniper team, before they start a mission, must agree and understand 
what methods will be used to indicate targets to the other and what methods 
will be used to ensure both are ready before the shot is made. 



18. When firing over ground, the extent of its 
relationship between: 



danger space depends on the 



a. The trajectory and the line of sight, or angle or fall, and there 
fore on the range and the circumstances of its trajectory. 

b. On the height of the target. 

c. On the point of aim. 

d. On the point of impact. 



20. For the given height 
of fixed dimensions over 
relationship to the slope 
lesser on rising ground. 



of target and point of aim, 
level ground, while the 
of the ground; being 




the danger space is 
space varies in 
on falling ground and 



80 



/ 



\ 



The following is a list of compensation factors to use in setting the 
sights of the sniper weapon system when firing from any of the following 
angles. To use this table, find the angle at which you must fire and then 
multiply the estimated range by the decimal figure shown to the right, i.e 
estimated range is 500 meters, angle of fire is 35 degrees, set zero of 
weapon for: 

500 * .82 = 410 meters 



> 



SLOPE ANGLE 



MULTIPLY RANGE 



UP OR DOWN 



BY 



.05 deg. 
.10 deg 
.15 deg 
.20 deg 
.25 deg 
.30 deg 
.35 deg 
.40 deg 
.45 deg 
.50 deg 
.55 deg 
.60 deg 
.65 deg 
.70 deg 
.75 deg 
.80 deg 
.85 deg 
.90 deg 



.99 

.98 

.96 

.94 

.91 

.87 

.82 

.77 

.70 

.64 

.57 

.50 

.42 

.34 

.26 

.17 

.09 

.00 



81 



As can quickly be seen the steeper the ang^e the shorter the range will 
be set on the scope or sights to cause a first round hit. Also the steeper 
the angle the more precise you must be in estimating or measuring the angle 
Interpolation is necessary for angles between tens and fives. 



As an example 12 degrees is 40 % between 70 and 80 degrees 

70 degrees = .34 and 75 degrees = .26 



(.34 + .26) / 2 = .30 or 72.5 




- .30 



72 degrees would equal approximately .31 
A range of 650 meters at a 72 degree angle would equal: 

650 * .31 = 201.5 meter zero. 



Interpolation can be further carried out to 71 degrees or 74 degrees by 
using the same method with the .30 found for 72.5 degrees: 



(.30 + .26) / 2 = .28 for 73.75 




or (.30 + .34) / 2 = .32 for 71.25 



degrees 



82 



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LEADS 



INTRODUCTION 

1. Gain Attention. You and your partner have been in position for several 

■ m ^ i ■" ■-■ ■ « 

days without any luck at all, and are just packing it in when your partner 
catches sight of someone moving down a dry river bed, approximately 675 to 
700 yards down range. You both decide that he is moving at about a 45 
degree angle to you, an at average pace. You obtain what you think is the 
proper hold and lead for that range and squeeze the shot off. Your partner 
doesn't say anything, but looks at you and winks. 

2. First round kill is the name of the game. Being snipers, you could 
very well be placed in this situation and when you are, will be expected 
to # put that round right where it belongs on a moving target out to 800 
yards . 



\ 



3 . Purpose . 

a. Purpose . The purpose of this period of instruction is to provide 
the student with the knowledge of the proper leads to be used to hit a moving 
target (walking and running) at ranges from 100 to 800 yards. 

b. Main Ideas. The main ideas to be discussed are the following: 



(1) Methods of Leading a Moving 

(2) Angle of Target Movement 

(3) Normal Leads 

(4) Double Leads 



Target 



4. Training Objectives . Upon completion of this period of instruction, the 
student will, without the aid of references, understand and be able to 
demonstrate the proper lead necessary to hit a moving target at ranges from 
100 to 800 yards. 

TRANSITION. The best example of a lead can be demonstrated by a quarterback 
throwing a pass to his receiver. He has to throw the ball at some point 
down field to where the receiver has not yet reached. The same principle 
applies in shooting at a moving target with the sniper rifle. 



BODY 

1. LEADS . Moving targets are the most difficult to hit. When engaging 
a target which is moving laterally across his line of sight, the sniper 
must concentrate on moving his weapon with the target while aiming at a point 



t 



83 



seme distance ahead. Holding this "lead", the sniper fires and follows 
through with the movement after the shot. Using this method, the sniper 
reduces the possibility of missing, should the -enemy suddenly stop, hit the 
deck, or change direction. The following is a list of ranges and leads 
used to hit moving targets both walking and running; 



WALKING 



RUNNING 



RANGE 


LEAD 


LEAD 


100 


Front edge of body 


\ foot /body 


200 


\ foot /body width 


1 foot /body 


300 


1 foot/body width 


2 feet/body 


400 


\% feet/body width 


3 feet/body 


500 


2 feet /body width 


4 feet /body 


600 


2k feet/body width 


5 feet /body 


700 


3 feet/body width 


6 feet/body 


800 


3k feet/body width 


7 feet/body 



width 
width 
width 
width 
width 
width 
width 
width 

Another method of leading a target, and one which is used extensively 
by the British, is known as the "Ambushing". By "ambush", we mean the sniper 
selects a point some distance in front of his target and holds the cross- 
hairs or Mil Dots on that point. As the target moves across the horizontal 
crosshair or Mil Dot, it will eventually reach a point which is the proper 
lead distance from the center. At that instance, the sniper must fire his 
shot. This is a very simple method of hitting a moving target, but a few 
basic marksmanship skills must not be forgotten: 

a. The sniper must continue to concentrate on the crosshairs and not 
on the target. 



b. The sniper must continue to squee 
flinch prior to the shot being fired. 



the trigger and not jerk or 



c. Sane snipers tend to start with this method, but begin to track 
the target once it reaches that magic distance and then fire the shot. Use 
one of the two methods and stick with the one which you are confident will 
get that shot on target. (The instructor should draw these methods of 
leading on the chalkboard to better illustrate.) 

TRANSITION . The sniper must not only estimate his target range, but also 
it's speed and angle of travel relative to his line of sight in order to 
determine the correct lead. 



(a) Full Lead Target . When the target is moving across 

the observer's front and only one arm and one side are visible, the target 
is moving at or near an angle of 90 degrees and a full value lead is 
necessary. 



84 



(b) Half Lead Target . When one arm and two^ thirds of the front 

or back are visible, the target is moving at approximately a 45 degree angle 
and a one-half value lead is necessary. 

(c) Mo Lead Target . When both arms and the entire front or back 
are visible, the target is moving directly toward or away from the sniper 
and will require no lead. 



OPPORTUNITY FOR QUESTIONS 



SUMMARY 



1. Reemphasize . During this period of instruction, we have discussed the 
two different methods most often used to lead a moving target and emphasized 
that it was important to stick with one method and not fluctuate back and 
forth between the two. 

We covered the required leads that should be used to hit a moving target 
out to 800 yards. 

In conclusion, we discussed how to estimate angle of target movement and 
use of a full lead and half lead. Double leads were covered and the situation 
was covered as when to apply them. 

2. Remoti vate . As you can see, the sniper must now become proficient in 
his ability to judge distance, how fast his target is moving, and at what 
angle the target is moving with respect to him and still put that first round 
on target at ranges out to 800 yards. 



85 



) 



MOVING TARGETS 



SCHEDULE 



Dates 



Times 



Location / Yd Line 

R4 / 300 - 600 Yd Line 

R4 / 300 - 600 Yd Line 

R4 / 700 and 800 Yd Line 

R4 / 700 and 800 Yd Line 

R4 / 700 and 800 Yd Line 

R4 / 300 and 800 Yd Line 

R4 / 300 and 800 Yd Line 



Rounds Needed 



> 



REQUIREMENTS 

1. Twelve (12) 12" FBI silhouette targets for all the above dates. 

2. Seven (7) "A" type targets. 

3. In addition to normal combat equipment, each sniper team will be equipped 
with sniper rifle and binoculars/Spotting Scope. 

4. Student uniforms as directed. 
1- State Purpose and Main Ideas . 



a. Purpose . To make the sniper determine i 

walking or running at ranges of 



to hit a target 



t>. Main Ideas. The main ideas to be discussed are the following: 



(1) Methods of leading a moving 

(2) Angle of target movement. 

(3) Speed of target. 

(4) Normal Leads. 

(5) Double Leads. 




87 



2. Training Objectives . Upon completion of this period of instruction, 
the student will: 

a. Be able to understand the proper methods or leading a target at 
ranges of 100-800 yds. 

BODY 

1- Conduct of Firing Exercise. 

a. The student will wear camouflage and move tactically during the 
moving exercise. Tactical movement for this exercise will consist of a 
low crawl from behind the firing point to the firing point (approximately 
10-15 yds) and back. 

b. Each sniper team will be given a block of targets that will be his 
firing position (approximately 35 ft long) . Each sniper team must pick a 
firing position within his sector of fire and low crawl to his firing 
position. 

c. The student then must load five (5) rounds of ammunition into his 
sniper rifle and wait until a target appears in his sector of fire. 

d. Moving targets will appear on the far left sector first and far 
right sector second of the snipers firing sector. 



e. When a target appears, 
where in the sector the target 
sighting and any other element 



the sniper's observer must tell the sniper 
is, the wind element at the time of the 
that may cause a error in a first round hit 



f . After the sniper has engaged his target and it is a hit, the target 
will go down and move to the far corners of their sector of fire and wait 
until all targets have reached this position. On command from the Pit 
Officer or OIC, all targets will be sent into the air and show their hits. 
The sniper's observer will then record his hold used and plot the impact 

of the shot. 

g. If a target has reached the end of the sector and it has not been 
fired upon or hit, the student will bring the target into the pits. On 
command from the Pit Officer/OIC all targets will go into the air. A 
miss will be indicated by facing the back side of the target towards the 
firing line. On the command from the Pit Officer/OIC all targets will be 
taken back into the pits, and again on comnand from the Pit Officer/OIC, 
the next set of targets will come up and start to move from right to left 
in their sector of fire* 

2. Conduct of Pit Officer/OIC . 

a. To insure targets, pasters, and spotters are available for each 




b- To insure all targets are spaced 



fl) Pit team I 
(2) Pit team 2 



1-8 

9-16 



88 



(3) 


Pit 


team 


3 - 


- 17-24 


(4) 


Pit 


team 


4 - 


- 25-32 


(5) 


Pit 


team 


5 - 


- 33-40 


(6) 


Pit 


team 


6 - 


- 41-50 



c. To insure that two (2) students are manning each moving targets 

d. To contact the Conducting Of ficer/OIC when pits are ready to 
start the firing exercise* 

e. On command from the Conducting Of ficer/OIC each student will 
raise a moving target at the far left sector of fire, (e. g. 1, 9, 17, 25, 
33, 41) and start walking from left to right or to the end of the firing 
sector (e. g. 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 50) . 

f . The Pit Officer/OIC must insure that all targets start at the 
far left sector of fire first. (e. g. targets 1, 9, 17, 25, 33, 41} 

g. On command, raise all moving targets and walk to the end of 
the sector {e. g. 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 50). 



the 
a 





h. Insure that if a target is hit, the student pulls the target into 
pits and walks to his far sector or end of his sector and waits. If 
is not engaged or the sniper fires and misses, insure that the 
keeps moving until it reaches the end of the sector and then brought 
down into the pits. 

i. On command from the Conducting Officer/OIC, all targets will 
appear to show the student their impact. If it is a miss, the back side 
of the moving target will appear. On command all targets will be taken 
back into the pits. 



j . Again on conmand the next set of 
right to left. 



targets will start to move from 



k. If the student hears the word " mark " in their sector of fire, 
he will pull the target down and look for a shot. If an impact hole can 
not be found, raise the moving target and walk to the end of the sector. 

3. Scoring . 



a, The value of each 
V - R / 100; V = value of 
i.e. V = 500/100 = 5 

V = 600/100 = 6 

V = 300/100 = 3 



hit will 
the hit, 



be determined by the formula 
R = the range 



b. Kisses will be scored as zero. 

c. Passing score for a firing exercise will be 80% of the total points 
available. 



89 



FOEMALA - 



ERMINE VIND CORRECTION MILS 



J- . 



DETERMINE VIND CQERETICW 



RAA'GE X VELOCITY = VIND CORRECTION IN R.O.A 
15 






14 


RflO 

■j L -.- -j 


yds 


13 


700 


yds 

-.p 


13 


&00 


yds 




900 


yds 


i: 


1 yds 


CONVERT 


NORMAL 


LEAD 


IN 


MILS X 


SUBTRACT 


NORMAL 


M,O.A. 







MIL LEAD INTO K. 0. A 



3.375 - LEAD IN K. 0,A. 



LEAD IN MILS CONVERTED TO K. 0, A. FROM VI I'D CORRETION IN 



LEAD IN M.O.A. - VIND CD5RSTI0N IK M.O.A. - CORRECT LEAD IN M.O.A 



4. TD DETERMINE TfEV LEAD IF MILS v CORRECT LEAD U M.O.A. 



3.375 - LEAD IN MILS divided by NEV LEAD IN M.O.A. 



ZXS AMPLE. 



500 yard shot with fl m. p. h« full value wind from the right. 



i 

H. > 



15 a a ^ 

15 



-2.6 2. 1 1/4 x 3.375 - 4.75 MQA 3. 4.75 - 2,b - 2,15 MGA 



3.375 JL 2. 15 - 1.5 MILS 



90 



MOVING TARGET LEADS 

NOTE: HOLDS ARE FROM CENTER OF TARGET 



RANGE 



MILS 



WALKING-2 MPH 



MQA 



FEET 



^^H^^ra^^b 



100 yards 



Leading edge of target. 



200 yards 



0.5 



yards 



1 1/8 



1.0 



yards 



1 1/4 



4.5 



1.5 



500 yards 



1 1/4 



4.75 



2.0 



600 yards 



1 1/2 



5.0 



2.5 



700 yards 



1 1/2 



5.0 



3.0 



800 yards 



1 1/2 (1 3/4) 



5.25 {5.5) 



3.5 (3.75) 



900 yards 



1 1/2 {1 3/4) 



5.25 (5.5) 



4.0 (4.25) 



1000 yards 



1 3/4 



5.5 (5.75) 



4.5 (5.0) 



RUNNING SHELL 



100 yards 



1 3/4 



0.5 



200 yards 



1/34 



1.0 



300 yards 



2 1/4 



8 



2.0 



400 yards 



2 1/2 



3.0 



500 yards 



* 2 3/4 



9.5 



4.0 



I 1 




600 



700 yards 



* 3 



* 3 



10 



10.25 



5\0 



6.0 



800 




* 3 



10.5 



7.0 



900 




* 3 1/4 



10.75 



8.0 



1000 yards 



3 1/4 



10.75 



9.0 



*Running targets are not recommended at these ranges due to the leads re- 
quired. If target must be engaged then use windage knob and hold directly 
on the leading edge of the target. Example, runner left to right, 600 
yards, use right 10 minutes of angle and hold on his leading edge. 



91 



FAST WALKERS-3-4 MPH 



RANGE 



MILS 



MOA 



FEET 



100 yards 



Leading edge of the target 



200 yards 



1 1/4 



4.5 



0.75 



300 yards 



1 3/4 



6.0 



1.75 



400 




6.5 



2.5 



500 




6.5 



3.0 



600 yards 



6.75 



4.0 



700 yards 



6.75 



4.5 



800 




2 1/4 



8.0 



5.5 



900 




2 1/4 



8.0 



6.75 



1000 




2 1/2 



8.5 



7.5 



It must be emphasized that these are beginning leads only. Each 
individual will have his own lead for any given time and/or circumstances. 
The wind will also play a very big factor in the lead used for a given shot 
at a given range. As an example, a walker at 600 yards moving from left to 
right with a wind of 15 mph from left to right will change the lead from 
2.5 feet or 1.5 mils to the leading edge of the target. (15 * 6 = 90/10 = 
9/2 = 4.5 MOA. Normal lead for a walker at 600 yards is 5 MOA, a difference 
of .5 MOA or 3 inches at 600 yards.) 

Half leads for angular movement and double leads for movement towards 
the shooters shooting hand must also be computed into the lead. 



92 



RANGE YARDS 



VEL. FPS 
ENERGY FT- LB 
DROP INCHES 



WIND DEFLECTION 

INCHES 10 MPH 



VEL. FPS 
ENERGY FT. LB 

■ 

DROP INCHES 



rfIND DEFLECTION 

INCHES 10 MPH 



224 dia., 55 gr. FULL METAL JACKET B.T. 



MUZZLE 



100 



200 



300 



400 



2900 
1027 
00 



2545 

791 

-2,22 



218-7 
584 

-9.35 



1860 
422 



1453 

258 



00 



20 MPH 00 
30 MPH 00 



1.15 
2.31 
3.46 



5.33 

10.65 

15.98 



13.31 



2b 
39 



r 



61 



92 



54,10 
61.16 



.308 dia., 150 gr. FULL METAL JACKET B.T 



2800 
2611 
00 



00 



20 MPH 00 
30 MPH 00 



2597 
2247 
-2.30 



.72 

1.45 

2.17 



2404 
1924 
-9.76 



3.00 
6.00 
8.99 



2218 
1638 
-23.24 



7.01 

14.02 
21.03 



2041 
1387 



500 



nfT^>^h^ 



1139 

158 



-24.81 -50.13 -92.26 



27.05 50.21 



1 



4i 



150.63 



1872 
1167 



-43.80 -72.72 



12.97 21.13 
25.94 42.25 
38.91 63.38 



93 




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97 




LESSON OUTLINE 



SPECIAL OPERATIONS 



INTRODUCTION 

1. Gain Attention. The continuation of a sniper program in 



Special Warfare 
Platoons to 



will depend on how well, you as snipers can support the Seal 
carry out their assigned mission or independent sniper operations, 

2. Purpose. This lesson outline is constructed to better advise the Seal 
Scout Sniper to employ himself by giving a better understanding of weapons, 
tactics, and employment involving, Haskins 50 Cal S.W.S., Ship Boarding, 
Across the geact operations, HAHO Airborne Insertions. 



3. Training Objectives. At the end of this 
be able to: 



period of instruction you should 



a. Describe the tactical employment of snipers in, 50 Cal. S.W.S. Operations, 
Ship Boarding, Across the Beach and HAHO Operations, involving snipers in the 
support of Seal Platoons, or conducting independent Seal Sniper Operations. 

BODY 

1. General . Before we can start, we first must know what exactly is meant 
by the term "Special Operation". Special Operations involving Seal Scout 
Snipers can be considered any mission that is not normally encountered by 
your standard Seal Sniper. 

1. 50 Cal S.W.S 



{1) Capabilities 

(a) Maximum effective range - 2000-3000 meters 

(b) Less than one minute of accuracy. 

(c) 20X Leapole Vitra Ml Telescopic sight allows for: 
Improved target identification and location. 

(d) Used primarily in engaging hard targets 



( 2 ) Limit ations 
(a) Single 



capable of-semi-automatic 



99 



(b) Weight - 40 lbs. 

(c) Requires special maintenance and repair 
(3) Anffnonition 

(a) Armor Piercing 

(b) Ball ammo. 

(c) Tracer 
Cd) 
(e) RDX 

4. Sniper Employment 
A. General 

{1) Effective sniping by well-trained and we 11 -organized snipers will 
do more than inflict casualties and inconvenience to the enemy. It will have 
a marked effect on the security and morale of enemy personnel. 




(2) The method 
many factors: 



Snipers are employed will be controlled by 



Nature of the ground (Terrain) 
Distance (To the target) 
Existence of obstacles 

Insertion and extraction methods 
Degree of initiative shown by the 
Type target (Hard/Soft) 
Number of snipers available. 



enemy 



(3) The 50 Cal S.W.S. was designed to engage hard targets from extended 
res up to 2000 meters, due to the excessive weight of this weapon, makes 
employment of a two man Sniper Team impractical. The three man Sniper 
i concept has been developed, to adjust for the weight problems encounter* 
i usinq this weapon. 



a - FT Man - will carry all communications equipment 
be O.I.C. 



b. 
50 Cal S.W.S. 



Sniper - will be responsible for carrying the upper receiver of the 



c. Observer - Responsibilities will be to call wind for the sniper, 
carry the lower receiver, bolt, muzzle break, 50 Cal ammo., spotting scope, 
range finder. 

d. Depending on the mission and the number of snipers required to carry 

out the assigned mission, it may be necessary to employ more than one 3 man 

Sniper Team. 



100 



^F^^^™^^ta 





2. Ship Boarding Sniper Operations 

A. General . The employment of snipers to support a ship boarding assault is 

at.- asset available to the Assault Force Unit Carrmander. The employed seal sniper 
team's objective is to set secutiry for the assault teams moving to the ship, 
while boarding, moving to their set point, during the assault and after the 
assault has taken place. 

B. Employment . The employment of sniper teams will depend on: 

- Number of sniper available 

- Terrain 

- Obstacles 

- Number of Targets 
Distance . 

The sniper team will consist of a two man sniper team { sniper /observer) . 
These snipers should set 360° security around the target ship if possible. 
These sniper teams when possible should be employed in advance of the main 
assault force. By placing these sniper teams into position in advance, 
reliable information can be passed back to the main assault force of the 
situation on and around the target area. This information will be relayed 
*«*-> +-0 the assault force unit commander to assist him in planning his 
ion. 

(a) When using snipers in reduced light conditions all friendly forces 
should be marked in a way which clearly identifies them as such. Depending 
on what night vision devices are being used by the snipers (active or non- 
active I.R. sources) will depend on the marking procedures. 

(b) Active I.R. Sources 

1) I.R. lazer designators - I.R. tape (glint) should be worn by all 
f riendl ies . 

(c) Hon Active I.R. Sources 

1) Night Vision Scopes - I.R. Chem lights should be worn by all 

f riendl ies. 

d) Helo Support - One method available to a sniper team when employment 
of sniper teams in advance is not feasable. 

1) Employment - Two Helos will normally be used r one port and one 
starboard of the target ship. Two snipers will be employed with each Helo. 
One sniper on each side of the aircraft. 

2) The responsibilities of the aircraft is to set 360° security on 
the target, while the main assault force assaults the target ship. 

3) Equipment . 

- Night vision capability 

- I.R. Lazer Designator w/weapons. 

101 



3, Across the Be ach Operations 

m ■ — * . — ■■ - ■ ■ 

General . Across the Beach operations involving snipers will be conducted 

in two methods: 

- In direct support to a larger assault force 

- independent sniper operations 

1) Employment . (Support of Larger assault force) 

A) The employment of sniper teams to support a larger assault force is ar 
asset that can be used by the supported Unit Comander. Snipers should be 
employed if possible ahead of the main force (24-48 hours) to set security, 
and to mark the exact locations for the main force to come across the beach. 
Sniper teams should set security 180° to the front of the main force, 2, two 
man sniper teams should be used if possible. 




A 

Beach 



& 



<S> 



A 



Main Assault Force 'f- 



t 
f 




Main Assault 
Force 



2) Snipers Responsibilities . The number one man is responsible for 
frontal security. Number two and four men are responsible for flank securit 
number three man's responsibilities are to mark the beach, link up with the 
main force to pass any information, and to guide the main force to the 
objective. After the main force has moved from their nrtrgrrtion point, 
sniper 1, 2, and 4 will have two options: *■' ' 

- They can move with the main force 
Keep flank and frontal security 

- Remain behind the main force to set security, and 

help guide the main force to their extraction rally point. 

If sniper teams cannot be employed ahead of the main assault force, sniper 
teams should come across the beach with the main assault force. Once the 
sniper teams are on the beach, their primary job is to set 360° security for 
the main assault force. Situation will dictate how snipers will be employed 
Main points to remember, snipers are best employed where the main force is 
most vunerable. 



102 



- Moving across the beach 

- Moving frcm the objective rally point to the object 

- Moving from the objective To Tut <k s\ v* c v c/sj £<^v\^ <pX . 

- Moving from the extraction rally point, for extraction back out 
to sea. 

B) Independent Sniper Operations 

When conducting across the beach operations that involve snipers or very 
small units (1-4 men) the following tactics are best used: 

1. Movement Across the Beach . Snipers should swim in a swimmer pool 
while swimming to the beach. Once the sniper team or teams have reached a 
point approximately 200 meter out frcm the shore line should get on line facing 
the shore line in order to observe the beach for any movement. 

Once the sniper team(s) have reached a point where they can stand up and 
remove their fins the following actions should be observed: 

- Before removing their fins, the sniper team should observe the beach 
for any enemy movement. 

- Once the team is confident the beach is secure. One member at a time 
will remove his fins and prep any equipment for movement across the beach. 

Once ready, all members will move together on line across the beach. Once 
across, the sniper team will proceed to their initial rally point, to prep 
any weapons or equipment for movement to the objective rally point. 

2- Tactics . Involving movement across the beach should consider the 
following: 

- Movement across the beach involving 1-4 men should not employ swinmer 
scouts. Due to the small numbers this tactic is not feasible. 



- Movement from the surf zone to the beach should be carried out with 
all personnel on line. This tactic, will bring all guns to bear if the 
sniper team is cxxrprcmised while moving across the beach. 

4. HAHO, HALO Airborne Operations . 

General . 

HAHO/HALO Operations involving sniper teams can be carried out in support 
of a main assault force or independently. 



1, In suppor t of a Assault Force. 
employed ahead of the main force (24-4 
Unit Commander in the following areas: 




teams (if feasible) should 
to support the main forces 



- To gather information on the objective area. 

- To set security for the main force's D.Z. 



103 



- Mark D.Z. 



- Guide main force to the objective . 

2. Independent Sniper Operations . (HAHO) 

General . When conducting HAHO operat 
the most important factor to consider. 



involving (1-4) sniper groupings 



The use of HAHO 
point due to: 



when the need to offset the 



- Risk of compromising the D.Z. 

- Threats to aircraft (AAA sights) . 

- Insertion aircraft cannot deviate from normal flight path. 

A) Grouping. Due to the small numbers involving snipers (1-4) grouping 
of all personnel is of great importance. In the employment of snipers the 
loss of one member will most likely result in the cancellation of the assigned 
mission, 

B ) Flight Formation » The staggard stack formation is best employed 
(2S up/2S back) This offers the most control. 



4 Man 



2 Man 



C) Base Leg. The base leg of the flight formation into the DZ should 
consider the following: 

- Altitude . (1500 foot max) The higher the altitude the higher the 
risk of compromising the D.Z. 

- Boxing. Right hand turns into the D.Z. Should be maintained at all 
times. 



Base 1 Ea 



} 



Wind Dir. 

J- 

AGL 
(1500 ft.) 



->- 



Touch 



Down 



Pt. 



as 

c 

Em 



~< 



(u oo£) 



\' 



iS 






A/ 



104 



I 



- Note: If altitude should be bled off approximately one mile out from 

the D.Z. The flight leader should do Flate S turns. He should 
give a visual signal to the rest of the formation by moving 
his leg in the direction of the turn. 

- Ccmpass Heading - Once exiting the aircraft and jumpers have ensured a 
clear airspace, they should immediately assume their ccmpass heading into 
the D.Z. After the formation is heading on the correct compass heading the 
jumpers should assume their slots in the formation. 

- Stick leader . Is usually the heaviest or most experienced jumper. 
His position upon exit from the aircraft will depend on what type of release 
the jumpnaster has selected. 

Cross Wind Release - Middle of the stick 

Upwind Release - Front of stick 



The stick leaders 
to the D.Z. 



responsibility is to safely navigate the flight formation 



- Action on the D.Z.- One word will sum this up " security" . 



NOTES : 

1. Marking jumpers (stick leader) 

A. Stick leader should be marked with chemical lights and 

strobe light 

B. Chera lights should be attached to the backpack of the MTIX 
reserve. Two blue, one red chem light attached to the rear 
right foot and green chem light to the left foot . 

C. This marking procedure is used to positively ID the stick 
leader and to aid the stick leader in signalling his 
intentions when making right or left turns. 

D. The stick leader should move the leg that corresponds to 
this desired turn. 



2. 



Actions on the DZ 

A. Rally points (primary and secondary) should be predesignated 
prior to insertion. 

B. Once safely on the DZ, and depending on the type of mission 

should be gathered up (para bags 
jumpers should move to a central 
security should be established 

and all chute and equipment should be buried. If time and 
mission dictate that chutes and supporting equipment cannot 
be buried, all equipment should be centralized and cammied 
as best possible. 

C. Security is a prime consideration 360°. One man digs while 
others keep security. 



and situations, parachutes 
should be reused) , and all 
location. Once there, 360* 



105 



L-SSON OUTLINE 




t Su 



ance and tafri 



I. Purgase- To enable the SEAL Scout Sniper tc employ himself during suW=ia«c« 
and aircraft take icwn. 



2. Icai 



iQing abiectivi 



Bi scribe and demostrate the tactical employment of SEAL 



Scout Snipers during an aircraft surveillance and takedown. 



BODY 



1. Ge n ^rai ■ Snipers will be utilized in the intial pre-assualt 
help coordinate a well planned assualt. cnce the assult order has 
sniper's primary responsibilities will be security of the assualt 
remove as many identified targets as possible and the disablement 
aircraft, additional resposibilities: 



surveillence to 
been given the SEAL 
force, surgicallly 
of the target 



- Gathering of pertinent information for intelligences purposes 

- Selective target elimination. 

- Aircraft takedown in conduction with breachers and assualt t 



earns. 



Assualt force security while moving to their aircraft set point, during the assuaU 
and after the assualt force has assualted the aircraft. 

- Photographic reconn. 






107 



2- Employment. The employed SEAL snipers will be divided into two seperate elements 
with additional command and control element. Once all sniper eleiaents are in place 
communication will be establish with the command and control element. Each element 
will be designated their own radio freqencey. The two elements will be designated 
EAZA. and SIERRA (Papa is designated the port side of the aircraft and Sierra the 
right side of the aircraft) The number of Sniper teams to be ernplayed will depend on 
the following: 

- Terrain. 



Type of aircraft. 



- dumber of sniDers avallible 



- Duration of mission. 



Individuals or sniper teams in each element will be mjmberered, begining at 
of the aircraft cockpit area (i.e. PAPA 1,3,5,7 4 SIERRA 2,4,6,3,). SIEBSAs 
even numbers and PAP As will be odd numbers. Sniper or sniper teams will set 
360 degrees around the target aircraft. 



the front 
wi 1 1 be 
securi ty 




employing snipers into the field: 

- Communications checks between individuals or sniper teams, comisand and control 
element, assualt team forces and ground force unit commander. 

- Test fire weapons. 

- Coordination between assualt teams leaders and brea.ch.ers. 

- Test all obsevatinn and photographic equipment. 

- Brief all snipers on mission and individual responsibilities. 



4. 




r teams 



Report status of all aircraft entry paints, (i.e 
booby traps, tamper ing> door blockage), 

.Report status of all windows! open or shut. 



open, close, boarding ladders, 



Report movement by windows or entry points and passible identification of 
personnel <goad , bad). 

Report areas of freqent use and identify by whom. 

Photograph any personnel if passible. 

Report any weapons and what type if possible. 



108 



- Describe any personnel and clothing they are wearing, jtf/sical character: sties of 
any personnel, 

- Sep art any situation or event that cauid compromize the assuait farce or any 
passible threat to any hostages. 





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cn^ r 

ii ^ 



■ ■ Ml ■ r- ■ 

— ■ -»- ™ ■ ji J u-^ lA u '1 «h^. -^ ^1 fl -. _. „ 

— II J -11 



7P 



( ■ n i -c: - r: nnrn^ i t T 

- *- -^M- — — _*. — ~. - lLj I. ^^ ^. | 






.e wards j ;"stop i 
be relayed tc- the 

iH r~i n »tL ^y"h t^ri r"SiJ ^--= = 



fl 



i -f*!- 



^; :^ ^^ 



^ ■■= : : -t 
-_- -..- -j ■**•. 



ir^, r^^i 



r- " j 









Gve t 



ir» * ^ 



^ ^.^ ^ T 3 ^ ^ T r ^ ^ ,_. . , ^ - - 

* ^ I J T* 1 ft rf ; l ■^^ -^ Jl ^g — ^ -^ h » 



irl czZ,"Z."-J^1^LI?Il G,6 7 1 -" 1 "HT/^3 



*^ r— t P 



r^p -^"'t:-^ t 



^ ml ^ -=^ Z. l I! T: 15 3" G I2D !P " ni Z" £l d ~^ y ^ avr^^^ni 



" '"" ^ cr '^ 1 ^n Ti — * *^ 



find: 



-r -^ 



raEpcsnibi I: t i^E will be tc engage ^r; 



hre^' tn bcs^age£ e:-:i = t:) ±3 
sniper have no 1 : be 3bie 

-■ the issu d i 71 te^ 









[D 3^ ^ 



^ -"e u in ^ "^ 






C .^ 
A - 



_Ti*r .^ " r^ (3 ^1 ■— TIT- 

.---- f h_C t_j u ._. ^_a. ^ iJ i. 



^^i i.ne 5lSSL;Jl^ , : r.3.s cc^imer_zeQ :aeir asz'jair or rpa -r^^-^^r 11^--^- 
has taken place ail snipers will rernai:i in place in order cc 
n'ain ;o0 decree security of ^he assualt farce unless so directed by the ccrn: 



^ r 



T^ T i" 



^1 r a tt^i -p 



3T1? 






y ^= -_:__ar.c 
ic. -. -.-lis is i-crr^aly done fcr further identification cf hsstagaes 
A -ini^al sniper fcrce she l- Id he left in post ion to inaintain 



c: ti.-» ■ 1 i — ■ ^ - t 

■-j ■_. h_. «_^ j, .^ .j- ^ 



ircr 



nrni* -n" n 



T ^ ci I r nno r* 

'■-■' -— L - — ■ <^» u h' ". ■ J. 



1 /? -* fN 



iCl ^^* i-u r* 



*> ~i -1 . . -1 



nc «t dcivm until I the s^sauix 



.^1 ■►■ 



-n ™ 



. 1 1 . T T ^-> >^ ^. -^->. 



mis 1 = ween 



a^l snicer and assualt tea els have the 



:u-:y prepare their selfs for the assualt. The snipers will preform the following 



r ^ cr ^cr 



- ""nf^T^ 



,-_ ..' p IT p ^. ^ ^; ^-j_ =, t *- - r - 






nn =^ ■"■ -* 



--- i 



^evj"- nbserv^t Lczi ^zic. ph„":c?r5"hic ec\:i 



r\-^>.^ ■*- ■+- 



: JL 



n -: 



■^•~ "-\ -— 



- C^izence surveiliance. 



us 






e- J - 



i^JT* n 



icing on sniper s postic 
.d laid or Saba round fc 
realise of the ira 
:ors or windows. > 



3r 



g nazar 



a r e i o 1 
craft wi 
zer lack 



espDr.sibility, select proper bullet 
.shield copper jatst anm:c! should not 



^ m 



^0 can be 'jsed tn ens;a?e targets 



oe 



TesL cofflnuniction with all ur.its. There should be three srerate radio fr^cis: 
Primary - Sniper to Sniper comand and control element. 



109 



2. Secondary - Sniper to assult team leader. 

3. Secondary - Sniper to sniper. 

SOTS: Vhen establishing communication all snipers should have an capiblity to engage 
targets at one time in unison. This is referred to as synchronized or synchro firing. 
BY engaging all targets at one time there is no time for the threats to react to an 
situation where Dne of their commrads has taken a hit, which gives the bad guys time 
to jcill an hostase. 



Once communication has been established between snipers and command and control and 
the siduation warrents to engage any threats by synchro fire (normally this is done 
in unison with breaching the aircraft just slighly before the breach. This will 
reduce the number of bad guys the assualt farce has to deal with. ) the communication 
format is as follows; 



nipers stand by "GSEEN". 

nipers "READY", "BEADY", "READY" , "FIBE" . 



ail targets will be engaged, if the word fire is not said sniper will not en^a^e 



Q^O 



target, if there is a delay in the sequence the format will be completely started 



over. 



The word "BLACK" means donot engage targets dDnot fire 



4. Set security for breaching and assualt teams. 



5. 

sn 

or; 



Upon aquistian of correct number of targets (ground force commander 
iper command and control to engage targets, command and control will 
ier to shoot upon the order of the ground force commander. > 



will relay 
only relay the 



6. Essentia 




ment. 



Remington model 700. or 300 windmag. 

Communictions equipment MX-3Q0E OR MX-360, hand raidos. 



Spotting scope 



Binos. 



Kao of area. 



Log hook if working in sniper teams 

Bange card. 

Bange finder if avaible. 



110 



- Kadio pouch. 

- 40 rounds 7.62 Or 300 windmag, 

- Standard issue side arm with 30 rounds. 



3ed lens flash light. 



Strobe light. 



- Depending on the siduation the option of using night vision scopes should be 
included with all sniuers. 



Secondary weapon with X-845 night vistion device 



- Terrain and climate will dictate uniform. 



■ 



I 



111 



BOEING 707 



1 PAPA 



J? PAPA 



^ PAPA 



7 PAPA 




SIERRA 



SIERRA <£ 



J TERRA 



I ERR A 





Boeing 707 320C f our-turbofan passenger cargo transport aircraft. (Pilot Press) 

COCKPIT AND FRONT EXIT 

WINDOWS PROM FRONT EXIT TO LEADING EDGE OF WING 
ALL WINDOWS OVER WING AND ALL WINDOW EXITS 
WINDOWS AFT OF WING AND REAR EXIT 

FIRING POSITIONS CAS! BE THE SAME AS OBSERVATION POSITIONS BUT CAN BE MOVED TO COVE 
SUSPECT AREAS OR MORE HEAVILY USED EXITS OR WINDOWS. 



112 



BOEING 747 SP 



SIEKRA 




i 



SIERRAS- 



PAPA | 



SIERRA <U 



PAPA 3 



PAPA 5 



PAPA 7 




lERRA^ 






fOOQ. 



Boeing 747SP short-fuselage range version of the 747. {Pilot Press) 



COCKPIT AND LOWER WINDOWS TO FRONT DOOR 
^RONT DOORS TO WIXG EXIT AND UPPER DECKS 
WING EXIT FRONT TO WING EXIT REAR 
REAR WING EXIT TO REAR DOOR 



FIRING POSITIONS CAN BE THE SAME AS OBSERVATION POSITIONS 
UP SUSPECT AREAS OR COVER HEAVILY USED EXITS OR WINDOWS. 



BUT CAN BE MOVED TO BEEF 



113 



BOEING 737-200 



PAPA t 



PAPA S 



FAPA.5 



PAPA 





SIERRA 4" 



I ERR/ U. 



IERRA 






Boeing 737-200 twin-turbofan, short-range transport. (Pilot Press) 

COCKPIT 

FRONT EXIT AND WINDOWS TO WING 
WING WINDOWS AND WING EXITS 
AFT OF WING WINDOWS AND REAR EXIT 



FIRING POSITIONS CAN BE THE SAME AS OBSERVATION POSITIONS BUT CAN BE MOVE TO BEEF 
UP MORE SUSPECT AREAS OR TO COVER HEAVILY USED DOOR OR WINDOWS. 

114 



BOEING 727-200 



PAPA \ 



SIERRA 



PAPA J 



PAPA 5" 



PAPA * 




■£ERRA V- 



IEF^IA <o 



PAPA 



1 




IERRA 



*■* 




I 



Boeing 727-200 three- turbo fan, short/medium-range transport. (Pilot Press) 



PAPA 
SIERRA 
PAPA 
S1FRRA 



COCKPIT AND FRONT EXIT 

COCKPIT 
WINDOWS TO WING 

WINDOWS PROM COCKPIT TO LEADING 



EDGE OF WING 



WING EXITS AND WINDOWS OVER WINGS 
WINDOWS AFT OF WINGS AND REAR DOOR 
APA REAR RAMP 

FIRING POSITIONS CAN BE THE SAME AS OBSERVATION POSITIONS BUT CAW BE 
MOVED TO MORE SUSPECT AREAS OR TO COVER HEAVILY ITSP.D WTNnnWR HP ir*Tnr 



115 



BOEING 767-200 



PAPA * 



PAPA 



AD 



A 5 



PAPA 7 



SIERRA 




SIERRA ^- 



SIERRA <* 



SIERRA * 





Boeing model 757-200 wide-bodied, medium- range, 
aircraft, (Pilot Press) 
COCKPIT 

FRONT EXIT AND WINDOWS TO WING LEADING EDGE 
ALL WINDOWS OVER WINGS AND WING EXITS 
WINDOWS AFT OF WING AND REAR EXIT 



commercial transport 



FIRING POSTIONS CAN BE THE SAME AS OBSERVATION POSITONS BUT CAK BE MOVED TO COVER 
SUSPECT AREAS OR HEAVILY USED EXITS OR WINDOWS. 



116 



PAPA * 



BOEING 757 



PAPA 3 



PAPA O 



PAPA 7 




SIERRA 



SIERRA */■ 



SIERRA & 



RRA Z 





Boeing model 757 twin-turbofan, medium-range, commercial transport 
aircraft. (Pilot Press) 

COCKPIT AND FRONT WINDOW 
WINDOWS TO SECOND EXIT DOOR AN!) DOOR 
WINDOWS TO THIRD EXIT DOOR AND DOOR 
WINDOWS TO REAR EXIT DOOR AND DOOR 



FIRING POSITIONS CAN BE THE SAME AS OBSERVATION POSITIONS BUT CAiN BE CHANGED TO COVER 
SUSPECT AREAS OR MORE HEAVILY USED EXITS AND WINDOWS. 



117 



PAPA ' 



PAPA 3 



PAPA >cr 



t> 



MCDONNELL DOUGLAS 
DC^IO 



PAPA 



7 




SIERRA 



IERRA V~ 



TERRA £* 



SIERRA 





McDonnell Douglas 30 high- capacity, three-engined transport 
Press) 



(Pilot 



PAPA 

PAPA 
PAPA 
PAP* 



COCKPIT AND FRONT EXIT 

SECOND EXIT AND ALL WINDOWS FORWARD TO FRONT EXIT 

WING EXITS AND WINDOWS TO SECOND EXIT 
REAR EXIT AND WINDOWS TO WING EXIT 



FIRING POSITIONS CAN BE THE SAME AS THE OBSERVATION POSITIONS BUT CAN BE MOVED 
TO BEEF UP MORE SUSPECT AREAS OR HEAVILY USED EXITS OR WINDOWS. 



118 



PAPA \ 



PAPA 



3 



PAPA 



papa y 



PAPA 9 



IERRA 




IERRA 



SIERRA *JL- 



IERRA 



TERRA / O 





Boeing 747-200E four -turbo fan, heavy-transport aircraft. {Pilot 
Press) 

COCKPIT AND LOWER DECK TO PRONT DOOR 

FRONT DOOR TO WING LEADING EDGE AND UPPER DECK 

ALL WINDOWS ABOVE WING TO THE MIDDLE WIKG EXITS 

ALL WINDOWS ABOVE WING FROM THE MIDDLE WIXG EXIT TO EXIT BEHIND WING 
EXIT BEHIND WIKG TO REAR EXIT A3D REAR EXIT 

FIRING POSITIONS CAfl BE THE SAME AS OBSERVATION POSITIONS BUT CAN BE MOVED TO MORE 
SUSPECT AREAS OR TO COVER HEAVILY USEDEXITS OR WINDOWS. 



119 



PAPA * 



PAPA £ 



FA?A-£ 



MCDONNELL DOUGLAS 
DC- 9 



PAPA *7 




IERRA 



SIERRA 




SIERRA 



.<H-"* 



IERRA IP 





version of this twin- 



McDonnell Douglas DC-9 Super 20 "stretched" 
turbofan transport. (Pilot Press) 

PAPA COCKPIT AND FRONT EXIT 
SIERRA COCKPIT 

WIDOWS TO FRONT OF WING 
WING WINDOWS AND EXITS 

WINDOWS AFT OF WING AND REAR EXIT 

FIRING POSITIONS CAN BE THE SAME AS OBSERVATION POSITIONS BUT CAN BE CHANGED TO BEEF 
UP MORE SUSPECT AREAS OR HEAVILY USED WINDOWS OR DOORS. 



120 



LOCKHEED L-1011 



PAPA / 



PAPA 3 



PAPA 



PAPA 



7 



SIERRA 




SIERRA 



IERRA C-i 



SIERRA 



V 





Lockheed L-1011-500 TriStar extended-range, wide-bodied transport 
with added side view {bottom) and scrap view of wingtip of L- 1011- 
100. (Pilot Press) 

SURVEILANCE POSITIONS AND INITIAL FIELDS OF FIRE 
COCKPIT AND FRONT EXITS 

ALL WINDOWS BETWEEN FRONT EXIT AND SECOND EXIT AND SECOND EXIT HATCH 
ALL WISOOWS BEHIND SECOND EXIT AND OVER WINGS 
WINDOWS AFT OF WING AND EITHER ONE OR TWO REAR EXITS 

FIRING POSITIONS CAN BE SAME AS OBSERVATION BUT CAN BE MOVED TO BEEF UP MORE 
SUSPECT AREAS OR HEAVILY USED ESITS. 



121 






PICKUP ZONE AND LANDING ZONE OPERATIONS 



3-1. SELECTION OF A PZ/LZ site 
a . Dimensions . 

(1) The landing point should be large 
circular area for landing of at least 25 meters 
dimensions are the minimum requirements for 
para 3-8 for correct dimensions of cleared areas 




enough to have a cleared 
for day or night. These 
considerations. (Refer 
) 



to 



(2) The landing site should have the capacity to accomodate the 
number, formation, and type of aircraft using the site. 

b. Surface Conditions. 

(1) The PZ/LZ should be free of obstacles and any loose debris 
.that might damage the aircraft or obstruct the pilot's vision. All obstacles 
should be removed if possible. All obstacles that cannot be removed should be 
well marked. Vegetation over 18 inches in height should be cut and removed. 

(2) The surface of the site should be firm enough to support the 
weight of the aircraft. 



(3) Ground slope is determined by mathematical computation 
the amount of slope, the following method is used: 



To 



V - Vertical Distance 
H = Horizontal Distance 

V is found by computing the < 
and the highest point on the 
is multiplied by 57.3. 

H is the length of the cleared area. 

V x 57.3 , _ , 
~ = degrees of slope. 

EXAMPLE: V^25' x 57.3 = 1432.5 „ J 

Z — FqTj — = 2.8 degrees rounded up to 3 



between the lowest poi] 
r the map. This number 



H = 



500 




ground slope. 



3-2. GROUND SLOPE REQUIREMENTS 



nee landing to a sloped surface 
.at and level surface, the ground 
beginning establishment of the 



lewhat more difficult than landing 
» should be taken into consideration 
The following rules shculd be 



123 



considered when the landing surface has slope. During night operations, the 
pilot should be advised that he will be landing on a sloped surface. 



a. Avoid landing downs lope 

b. Utility and observation 
exceeds 7 degrees. 



type aircraft will not land when the slope 



c. Large utility and cargo type aircraft will be issued an advisory 
when the slope is 7 to 15 degrees . 

d. Ideally, the surface of the landing point should be level. 
3-3. APPROACH AND DEPARTURE DIRECTIONS 



Attempt to have the aircraft approach and depart over the lowest obstacles 
An obstacle ratio of 10:1 for planning purposes is used, but this may vary 
depending on the aviation uni^s SOP. If you are unable to achieve the desired 
10:1 ratio, consider whether the aircraft will be landing loaded or unloaded. 
If landing loaded, use the greater obstacle ratio on the approach end. If de- 
parting loaded, have the greater obstacle ratio on the departure end. 



Figure 3-1. Obstacle ratio. 

3-4. IANDING FORMATIONS 

See figures 3-2 through 3-8 

3-5. NUMBER AND TYPE OF AIRCRAFT. 

a. Section: 4 UH-1H; 3UH-60? 2 CH-47 

b. Platoon: 8 UH-1H; 6 UH-60; 4 CH-47 

c. Company: 25 UH-1H; 19 UH-60; 12 CH-47 

3-6. WIND 

If the wind below 1,000 feet mean sea level (MSL) exceeds 90 degrees, 
and deviates in excess of 45 degrees from the long axis of the landing site, 
the land heading should be adjusted or an aircraft advisory issued. The 
allowable wind velocity decreases as the density altitude increases. Because 
of the design of the helicopter, if can only accept a miniimiri velocity of 
wind fran certain directions. 



124 




a. Aircraft can land with a tail wind of to 5 knots. 

b. Aircraft can land with a cross wind of to 9 knots. 

c. Aircraft can land with a head wind of 10 knots and above. 
3-7 DENSITY ALTITUDE 

a. Density Altitude. Density altitude determines the actual lift 
capability of the aircraft for that particular day. There are three environ- 
mental factors which affect the performance of helicopters: a 1 ti tude , temper- 
ature, and humidity. As any of these factors increases, the performance of 
the aircraft decreases . Optimum aircraft performance is obtained during a 
cool day with the field elevation as close to sea level as possible and with 
relatively low himidity. 

b. Marking of a PZ/LZ. 

(1) Helicopter landing points are categorized by size to accomodate 
different types of aircraft. The size of the landing point to be used is 
determined by the type aircraft employed, the aircraft's mission (troop lift, 
slingload, internal cargo) , and the extent of coordination with the supporting 
aviation unit. The five sizes of landing points are indicated below and are 
applicable to both day and night operations. 



Size 



Cleared Area Diameter 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 



25 meters 
35 meters 
50 meters 
80 meters 

100 meters 



(2) The landing point size for the different aircraft is indicated 
below. The distance between landing points is equivalent to the diameter of 
the cleared area. 



Type Aircraft 



Landing Point Size 



OH- 

UH- 
UH- 
AH- 
CH- 
CH- 
CH- 
AH- 



■58 

■1H 

■60 
1G 

•47 
54 

53 
■64 



1 
2 
3 

2 
4 
4 
4 
3 



NOTE: When integrating a slingload point with a landing site, the slingload 
point will normally occupy the area considered to be the last landing point 
in the formation. If the slingload aircraft is different in type then the 
landing aircraft, the distance from the center of the last landing point to 
the center of the slingload point will be 100 meters. If the slingload 
aircraft is of the same type as the landing aircraft, the distance between 



125 



the center of the last landing point ahd the center of the slinghcod point 
will be equivalent to the diameter of slingload point. In eaither case, the 
slingload point will be the last point in the formation. The slingload 
point will always be either a size 4 or size 5 landing point, regardless of 
type aircraft transporting slingloads. 

(3) The position of the signalman is approximately 40 meters to 
the aircraft's right front for landing aircraft. 

NOTE: These dimensions are general guidelines and may change depending on 
the supporting aviation unit's SOP and the extent of coordination. 

9. Chalk Numbers. 



HELICOPTER FORMATIONS AND CHALK NUMBERS 



fc ■ Ml^^^^ 



Staggered Trail 

Left 



Heavy 
Left Formation 



Echelon Left 




Staggered Trail 
Right 



Heavy 
Right Formation 



Eche lon Right 

■- — •-* — - ■ 



Figure 3-8. Formations with chalk numbers 



126 



3-9. MARKING TOUCHDOWN POINTS 

a. Daylight. The number one touchdown point is marked by a signalman. 
However, the aviation unit SOP will normally dictate how the site is to be 
marked during daylight. 

b. Night. The number one touchdown point is marked with an inverted 
Y or a landing T. The inverted Y is the most preferred method. 

(1) Inverted Y. The Y is best used for an approach initiated from 
terrain flight altitudes. The desired touchdown point is midway between the 
front two lights with the fueslage of the aircraft aligned with the stem 
lights. A minimum of four lights is used. 



INVERTED Y 



Landing Direction 



7M 



Stem Light 



Stem Light 



14M 




Light 



7M 



14M Ri ^ ht Le 9 

Light 

7M 



Point 



Figure 3-9. Inverted Y. 



(2) Landing T. The T is best used for approaches initiated fron 
air altitudes above 500 feet above ground level (AGL) . The apparent distance 
between the lights in the stem of the T can be used as a reference for main- 
taining a constant approach angle. The approach should be terminated in the 
upper left portion of the T. 



127 



LANDING T 



5M 5M 



8M 



Base Light 



8M 



Figure 3-10. Landing T. 
(3) Additional touchdcwn points 

(a) Utility aircraft- Marked with 2 Lights 5 meters 




(b) Cargo Aircraft. Marked with 2 lights 10 meters 




3-10 PLACEMENT OF VAPI 



When a visual approach path indicator (VAPI) * is used, it will be 
according to the following: 




*NOTE: VAPI must be checked after each departure. 



128 






^^^V^BV^P^BM 



! 



M) Inverted Y. The Y is best used for an approach 
initiated from terrain flight altitudes. The desired touchdown 
point is midway between the front two lights with the fuselage c 
the aircraft aligned with the stem lights, A minimum of four 
lights is used. 



INVERTED Y 




; LANDING 

DIRECTION 



IK £Wsa£ 






STEM LIGHT 

7M 

STEM UGHT 

MM 



J- "Z- LEFT LEG -£}— 1 4M —-ft- ft| GNT LEG 



^irr^£irfic<rrtc*o ught *p * ^^ ugkt 



POINT 



Figure 3-9, Inverted Y. 

(2) Landing T. The T is best used for approaches 
initiated from air altitudes above 500 feet above ground level 
(AGL). The apparent distance between the lights in the stem of 
the T can be used as a reference for maintaining a constant 
approach angle. The approach should be terminated in the upper 
left portion of the T. 

LANDING T 




8ASE UGHT 



Figure 3-10. Landing T. 
(3) Additional touchdown points. 

(a) Utility aircraft. Marked with 2 lights 5 meters 



aoart . 



129 



a. Inverted Y. 



AMBER 
GREEN 
RED 



#3M 



- 7M 



.* 



M 



'► 



14M 



I 



7M- 



Figure 3-11. VAPI when used with Y. 



130 



b. Landing T. 



AMBER 

GREEN 



RED 



15M 



5M 



-c 



5M 



8M 



8M 



Figure 3-12. YAPI when used with T (utility aircraft) 



131 



AMBER 
GREEN 
RED 



25M 



** 



5M 



5M 



8M 



8M 



Figure 3-12.1 VAPI when used with T (cargo aircraft) 



132 



-WHiHh 



! 



CLOCK METHOD OF DIRECTION 



9 O'CLOCK 



t 



6 O'CLOCK 




\ 



12 O'CLOCK 
DIRECTION 
OF TRAVEL 



3 O'CLOCK 



Figure 3-14« Clock method of direction 



133 



r 



i 



Size 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 



Cleared Area Diameter 



-M- 



W^W 



25 
35 
50 
80 

100 



meters 
meters 
meters 
meters 
meters 



{2} The landing poin 
indicated below* The distan 
equivalent to the diameter of 



e Aircraft 




size for the different air 
between landing points is 
the cleared area. 



Landing Point Size 



craft is 



OH-58 


1 




0H-1H 


2 




UB-60 


3 




AH-1G 


2 




CH-47 


4 




CH-54 


4 




CH-53 


4 




Afl-64 


3 





134 



J^^p^^"^^^*^^ 



CO 



■m— ^L^^P 



1*^^ 



V* 



-4 

^ 



3-6, WIND 

If the wind below 1,000 feet mean sea level (MSL) exceeds 90 
degrees, and deviates in excess of 45 degrees from the long axis 
of the landing site, the land heading should be adjusted or an 
aircraft advisory issued. The allowable wind velocity decreases 
as the density altitude increases. Because of the design of the 
helicopter, it can only accept a minimum velocity of wind from 
certain directions * 

a. Aircraft can land with a tail wind of to 5 knots. 






b. Aircraft can land -with a cross wind of to 9 knots, 

c. Aircraft can land with a head wind of 10 knot^ and above 



HELICOPTER FORMATIONS ANO CHALK NUMBERS 








© 




©X 






©X 



©^f 



LfFT 



© 




©X 



Trs 



© 



1*0 



HUVV 
LfFT FORMATION 




©X 



tHA MONO 



©X 



©X 








®x 



Vft 



®* 



© 




© 






© 




TRAK 



«^^9^L 



I * ■ ■* 








X© 



X© 






STAGGEM D TAAli 
RIGHT 



X© 




© 



XQ 



© 



D'F 



© 



HEAVY 
H4CKT FORMATION 



© 




«# 









© 



$Q 



© 



tCMELONflPGHT 



n * 



© 



Figure 3-8. Formations with chalk numbers. 



136 



_u — ^i-» 




- ^oOrf- 



■-^^^^™-ta»-i 



10: i 



O&STrtClc ft,ftHO 




t 

t 

\ 

1 




137 



HELO INSERTIONS/EXTRACTIONS 
CALL FOR FIRE HELO/SPBCTURE C-130 

GENERAL. The selection of a landing zone should be selected and prebriefed 
before the sniper team is inserted into the field. Due to the size of a 
normal sniper team and the lack of fire power, the sniper team leader should 
plan for a primary HLZ site and for alternates HLZ sites for extraction alon< 
their route of movement incase of overwhelming enemy contact. 

1. SELECTION OF A LANDING ZONE. 



a. Possible (tentative) locations. 

(1) Objective rally points. 

(2) Check points. 

(3) Pickup points. 



b. Factors to consider: 



(1) Space requirement. 



a. Covered by the supporting units S.O.P 



2. SIZE OF THE HLZ SITE 



a. 25-75 meters cleared area. 






b. 10-1 obstacle clearance ratio. Depending on the density altitude and 
the load the aircraft is carrying at the time, (a*J aircraft can insert and 
extract from a hovering position) , 



3. NUMBER OF HELOS TO BE USED. 



1 



GENERAL. The ideal situation when planning for helo support, is to use 
insertion/extraction aircraft along with supporting gunships. 

a. Cold HLZs. The insertion/extraction aircraft or aircrafts will land at 
the predesignated touch down points with the supporting gunships entering a 
standby traffic pattern to the rear of the insertion aircraft so not to 
enter fear with the departure of the other aircraft, but close enough to 
engage any unsuspected enemy threats. 



139 



.L? 



B. Hot HLZs. Again the insertion aircraft or aircrafts will land at the 
predesignated touch down points with the supporting gunships taking station 
ahead of the other aircrafts. In the situation where there are no supporting 
ground troops, the gunships will enter a circular traffic pattern engaging 
any enemy threats to the inserting aircraft and will maintain this pattern 
until the enemy threat to the aircraft and ground troops has been neutrualized 
or until the gunships run out of armrunition. 

c. Hot HLZ with supporting troops on the ground. The gunships again take 
station ahead of the extraction aircraft. Prior to the extraction aircraft 
touching down at the designated point, the supporting gunships and ground 
troops are used to prep the HLZ by gaining fire superiority over any enemy 
threats. When the aircraft starts it's flare to land, the ground troops will 
cease fire and move to the extraction aircraft. The door gunners will take 
up the ground troops fire, to help suppress any enemy threats to the aircraft 
and friendly personnel while the gunships maintain station to help neutrualize 
any enemy threats. 

NOTE: If a sniper team is compromised during a operation, one method to break 
contact would be a helo extraction. Normally a sniper team does not have 
enough fire power to secure a HLZ site, one method to assist the sniper team 
in securing the HLZ would be the use of helo gunships as stated above. If 
there are no gunships to support the sniper team, the team would be forced 
to move to a predesignated HLZ site along their line of march ahead of the 
persuing enemy force. The sniper team will have to coordinate their exact 
arrival to the touch down point and the landing of the extraction aircraft 
to prevent it from being shot down. 

4. SURFACE CONDITIONS. HkX i ?? 

1 rf**^^ a-r 

■_ 

a. Loose debris. 



b. The ground should be firm enough to support the weight of the 



5. GROUND SLOPE. 



exceeds 



b. Large utility and cargo type aircraft will not land if slope exceeds 
15 degrees. 



c. Never land a aircraft down 
aircraft flares to land. 




The 



6. APPROACH AND DEPARTURE. 

a. Aircraft should be landed into the wind whenever possible. 

b. Crosswind max. 10-20 MPH depending on the size of the aircra 

c. Tailwind max 5-10 mph depending on the size of the aircraft. 



140 



7. Marking HLZ 

General . Marking of a HLZ site will depend on the following: 

- No. of Aircraft 

- Terrain 

- Enemy threats 

- Weather 

- Unit S.O.Ps 
a. There are several methods of marking an HLZ touchdown point 

- Land features 

- NATO Y (night) 

- Single I.R. strobe light (night) 

- Smoke (day) /AC panels 

- Pyro flares 

1) The advantages of using the NATO Y, is that it offers more control of 
the extraction aircraft from the troop's on the ground. 

2) In rough terrain this is the most preferred method of marking a HLZ 
touchdown point. 

3) The disadvantages of using the NATO Y is it takes more time to set up 
than using a I.R. strobe light. 

B. Single I.R. Strobe Light . The use of a single I.R. strobe will again 
depend on the following: 

- Terrain 

- Enemy threats 

- Weather 

- Unit S.O.P. 

1) The advantage of using a strobe light is that it takes no time to set 
up. 

2) This method is the preferred method to mark a Hot HLZ touch down point. 

3) Troops on the ground who are taking fire can mark their position with a 
strobe light. Once the extraction aircraft has identified their position, 
the troops on the ground can guide the extraction aircraft to what ever 
location they have selected for their HLZ touch down point. This can be done 
by landing the extraction aircraft on the strobe light or off setting the 
touchdown point from the strobe light. 

4) The disadvantages of using a single I.R. strobe light is it offers NO 
control of the touch down point. In rough terrain this could present 
problems to the aircraft. 

C. Smoke . Smoke is normally used to mark the touch down point or the 
smoke can be used to off set the touch down point. 

! D. Other methods of marking a touch down point are: 

- 40 MM Illumination Rounds 

- Pop Flares 

- Fires 

- Land Features 

- Imagination 

141 



given a 



1) For a pilot to identify a HLZ touchdown point, he must be 

recognizable known point to work from, after which a bearing, distance, and 

description of the touch down point mast be given. 



NOTE: IF AIRCRAFT CANNOT I.D. YOUR POSITION SEND UP ANOTHER SIGNAL HAVE THE 
AIRCRAFT I.D., GIVE THE AIRCRAFT ANOTHER CLOCK DIRECTION AND DISTANCE FROM 
HIS PRESENT POSITION TO YOURS. 

IF GUNSHIP MISSES HIS TARGET OR ENGAGES THE WRONG TARGET TELL HIM TO SHIFT 
FIRE, THEN GIVE HIM A CARDINAL DIRECTION OF MAG. BEARING AND DISTANCE FROM 
HIS LAST IMPACT OF HIS ROUNDS FIRED TO THE CORRECT TARGET. 

WHEN USING I.R. STROBE LIGHTS TO MARK YOUR POSITION AT NIGHT WHEN THERE IS 
GROUND FIRE IN THE AREA, THE AIRCRAFT PILOTS CANNOT DISTINGUISH A I.R. STROBI 
LIGHT FROM GROUND FIRE. 



2. 



EXAMPLE FORMAT FOR CALL FOR FIRE FOR SPECIURE C-130 GUNSHIP 



GUNSHIP A C 
GROUND TROOPS G T 



AC > GT 



OVER 



GT > AC 



OVER 



ROGER AC FIRE MISSION 



OVER 



GT STATE FIRE MISSION 



AC 



ENEMY A.P.C. IN TREE LINE, FROM T.R.P. AW001 BEARING 360 MAG, 70 
METERS, THERE ARE NO GROUND THREATS, REQUEST 105 WITH 40 MM. 

CAN YOU I.D. 

OVER 
ROGER GT. 



NOTE 



WHEN USING SPECTURE C-130 GUNSHIPS, DUE TO THEIR CONSTANT CEBIT AROUND 
TARGET AREA. 



142 



OVER 



34 > 47 



OVER 
ROGER 47 
WE ARE AT YOUR 3 OCLOCK, 1200 METERS, SIGNAL OUT, CAN YOU I.D. 

ROGER 34 I.D. I.R. STROBE LIGHT 

ROGER 47 
3. ZONE BRIEF ELEMENTS: 

a. I.D. CALL SIGN 

b. ACTION REQUEST (MEDEVAC, EXTRACTION) . 

c. GROUND LOCATION (GRID, CHECK POINT, O.R.P., HLZ PREPLAND) . 

d. WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED. 

j 

e. DESCRIPTION OF HLZ AND TOUCH DOWN POINT (SIZE, SECURE/UNSECURE , HOT/COLD, 
SURFACE CONDITION, SLOPE) . 

f . DIRECTION OF APPROACH AND DEPARTURE (CARDINAL OR MAG. BEARING) . 

g. FRIENDLY POSITIONS (IN RELATION TO HLZ AIRCRAFT LAND HEADING USE CLOCK 
DIRECTION) . 

h. OBSTACLES IN APPROACH AND DEPARTURE PATH, DESCRIPTION, AND HOW MARKED) . 



I: 



i. TIME AND DIRECTION OF LAST ENEMY FIRE. (CARDINAL DIRECTION AND DISTANCE) 
i. SUSPECTED ENEMY POSITION. 



k. DIRECTION ENEMY FIRE MOST LIKELY. 



1. DIRECTION AIRCRAFT IS CLEARED TO FIRE 



m. LANDING ZONE MARKINGS. 



NOTE: SPEAK QUICKLY, CLEARLY AND ACCURATELY TO THE AIRCRAFT, SEND THE ENTIRE 
BRIEF WITHOUT INTERRUPTION. 



143 



7. CALLING FOR AIFO?AFT/CQMMUNICATIONS 

A. AIRCRAFT CALL SIGN - VH47 (HELO GUNSHIP) 
PERSONNEL REQUESTING AIRCRAFT - AQ34 



b. 



EXAMPLE FORMAT CALL FOR FIRE HELO GUNSHIP. 



WH-47 > AQ-34 

OVER 

AQ-34 > WH-47 

OVER 

ROGER 47 - FIRE MISSION 

OVER 

STATE FIRE MISSION 34 

OVER 

FROM MY POSITION NORTHEAST, 600 METERS TANK IN OPEN WITH GROUND TROOPS. 

MAKE YOUR GUN RUN, SOUTHWEST, TO NORTHEAST. DIRECTION OFF PULLOUT WILL 
BE TO THE EAST 

I WILL MARK MY POSITION, YOU IDENTIFY 

OVER 

ROGER 34, I COPY, FROM YOUR POSITION, NORTHEAST, 600 METERS, TANK IN OPEN WITH 
GROUND TROOPS, DIRECTION OF GUNRUN SOUTHWEST TO NORTHEAST, DIRECTION OF PULLOUT 
TO THE EAST, 

2 MINUTES INBOUND YOUR POSITION 

( YOU SPOT AIRCRAFT ) 

47 THIS IS 34 WE ARE AT YOUR 9 O'CLOCK, 1000 METERS, SIGNAL OUT CAN YOU 
IDENTIFY? 

ROGER 34, 

IDENTIFY 40MM PARA FLARE ON GROUND, 
ROGER 47, CAN YOU IDENTIFY TARGET, 

ROGER 34 



144 



CLOSE AIR SUPPORT 
(FAST MOVERS) 

1. PLANNING AND EXECUTION: A successful air strike begins with a well con- 
sidered, simple, coordinated plan. 

2. TARGET SELECTION: 

GENERAL: Effective air support requires a very high degree of accuracy. The 
distinctive radius of conventional weapons is relatively small, so the most 
suitable air support targets are correspondingly small. Area targets can 
be attacked by fighters, but this is seldom an efficient use of tac air. More 
effective results can be obtained by identifying the attacking critical 
elements within the target area. Proper timing, though difficult to achieve, 
is a vital importance with many targets. A sudden air attack against an 
enemy element engaged in assembly, assault, or withdraw can reduce that elemen 
to an ineffective fighting force. 

3. SELECTION FACTORS. 

a. CAPABILITIES OF ORGANIC WEAPONS . Are organic and supporting weapons 
unable to produce desired results? This does not mean that organic weapons 
must always be used first. If the job is obviously one for tac air, then 
ask for tac air. If the job can be done as well by organic means, use them. 



b. IDENTIFICATION OF TARGETS 
Dinooint if for him. 



Can 



target? Can you 



c. 



AIRCRAFT ARMAMENT CAPABILITIES. Can 



desired results? 



time availab: 



the 




a strike on it? Can the gro 
delay in obtaining a strike? 




remain a target long enough to place 
ion afford to wait if there will be a 



e. 



CAPABILITY TO DIRECT AN AIRSTRIKE. Can the airstrike be controlled or 



directed on target? 



f . GAIN TO BE REAX 



compared 



expenditure of air assets requ 



4. TARGET CATEGORIES . Most close air support targets can be placed in one 
of the following categories according to their vulnerability to conventional 
weapons carried by tactical fighters. 



145 



VEHICLE AND FOrrwrPHT 



f " ^^ f»" WJiHEjT, Small items of equipment 

s^ys; £a?ssr j=sj?r jest -"=^ 



URBAN AREAS . Urban 




: good ta 
an urban 
bombs, eu 



targets, specific 
readily destroyed 
with guided weapoi 



5 . ORBIT POINT FCJNTTTnM 



imply 



10 to 30KM behind the EEBA, established to fa 

craft to various oartc: n f hho, u^-t-^i ** ,j , «--«« ui ^^jf j-j.uw oe air- 

ccmrmicaUonrwi^^e F^.^h^ eld - w?"* alrCraft esta ^±sh radio 
to five minutes prior) £Lf ^L ^^ "^ ° rbit P°int {usually one 

his attack WetSS c^^to^T^ -* 11 «» FAC ««<=- 



can exclude certain areas fran use £et SSj'SSiSSS: 5 Nation 



must peunit positive radio ccmrrunications . 



consideration, the orhi> nm'nf c K n u ^ , f ' ±r sur Prise is a man* 
en^. The ^r^S^f ffcSiSS? 9 ° f ^ 

can te SSd?' ** 0rbit P ° iSt Sh ° Uld te a ^ sltio " fe» v*ere the att 



7. HOW TO PINPOINT THE T ABLET 

GENERAL. A rule to remember 1=: tha^ i-F =. *n~u 

usually hit it The^^JLl^-^ ?? ^ Can see the ***&, he can 
and precisely is doss^T ™ identified to attack pilots as clearly 

target loStioTto^fp^ J5 6 f ^° r ^? . ground ^ ™ st co^nunicate tte 



146 




T or he may request a mark from the ground. Without an airborn* 
frcm the ground will usually be necessary- In every case, a 
mark will reduce the chance of confusion or misunderstanding. 

METHODS. Each of the many ways of pinpointing a target have advantages and 

3. A combination of methods is often best. 




a. TARGET COORDINATES . Their value in actually pinpointing the target for 
strike will vary. Usually grid coordinates alone are adequate only for area 
type targets. Accurate 8 digit coordinates are necessary for radar bombing. 
Six digit coordinates are acceptable for visual strikes, the jet pilot usually 
be unable to pinpoint a 6 digit UTM coordinates due to his speed, altitude, 
and map scale (1:250,000 or 1:500,000). On the other hand some of the same 
aircraft have inertial navigation systems that automatically provide the pilot 
with latitude and longitude coordinates to the nearest second (100 feet) . 
IARAN systems also provide 8 digit UTM coordinates. Errors build up in inertial 
systems with time if they are not coupled with the LQRAN systems for continuous 
updates. If a pilot is provided with the latitude and longitude or a 8 digit 
UTM coordinates of a nearby prominent terrain feature, he can update his 
inertial system and obtain accurate information for several minutes. 

b. GEOGRAPHICAL LANDMARKS or terrain features, clearly visible from the air, 
can assist greatly in target identification when used with another location 
method. Streams, roads, bridges, tree lines, cultivated areas, prominent hills, 
etc., help narrow the area the pilot has to search, i.e., "in the tree line 
on the north side of a big square wheat field," means the pilot only has to 
look in the tree line on the north side of the big square wheat field. 

c. REFERENCE POINTS are the most caimon aid to visual location of a target. 
The pilot's eyes are led to the reference point and frcm it to the target, 
sometimes through a series of decreasingly obvious reference points. This 
is done usually in the following manner: 

1. Cardinal directions (NW, SW) 

J 2. Magnetic ccmpass bearing (degrees not mils) 

followed by a distance from the reference point to the target. Reference 
points (TRPs) similar to those used to lay artillery fire to precisely 
identify a target can either be preplanned or may be spontaneous references. 
Methods to mark a target are as follows: 

1- Smoke rounds frcm morta rs, artillery, or grenade launchers (40MM) , are 
the primary target marks. White phosphorus (WP) is usually the best because 
the cloud blosscms quickly and is highly visible. The round can be timed to 
the impact when fighters are in the best position to attack. Another method 
that is most commonly used is a 40MM parachute round with the parachute cut 
away and extracted from the round itself leaving only the pyrotechnic, this 
is a excellent method to small ground units in the field. 

2- Tracer fire can be used to mark a target at night. (The target is located 
I at the intersection of the two streams of tracer fire or the impact point of 

a single stream. You should be able to order your gunners to ccnmence or 
cease fire in rapid response to pilot request. Tracer burn is limited. 



147 



3. Ordnance already impacting on the target may provide an adequate mark or 
reference. There is a possibility of confusion if resulting smoke, fire, 
and etc., look like other nearby smoke or fires that the ground observer is 
not aware of. Where there is any chance of any confusion, a coordinated 
marking round should be used. 

4. Illumination rounds. 



5. Grass fires. 

6. Friendly positions , when clearly recognisable from the air, may be used 
as day or night reference points for the location of close-in targets. If 

a position is large, directions to the target should be given frcm a specific 
visible feature within the position (i.e., I.R. strobe, chem lights, pop 
flares, smoke, pannels, etc.,) the ground observer should be located near 
the mark or ground feature, if not the pilot should be informed of his relative 
position . 

7. Laser target designator will allow forward-deployed ground personnel to 
"mark" targets for tactical aircraft and to designate for the delivery of 
laser-guided weapons. This system is primarly a good weather, day or night 

r. 




8. Radar beacons 



9. HOW TO IDENTIFY FRIENDLY POSITIONS. 

1. When to mark . Friendly positions should be always marked during close 
airs tr ikes if there is no danger of compromise to ground troops. In some 
situations it may be necessary to accept compromise in order to conduct a 
safe airstrike. In other situations it may be adequate to say "all friendlies 
are south of the target" 500 meters. As a general rule a mark is required 
when troops are located closer then 300 meters to the target. Regardless 
of the situation the pilot feels better when he knows the location of friendly 
troops . 

10. ATTACK HEADING SELECTION. 

GENERAL: Pilots like to use random attack heading whenever possible in order 
to confuse enemy anti-aircraft gunners. It is also desirable to attack along 
the long axis of the target for maximum affect. The FAC may however, have 
to restrict attack headings in the interest of safety when there are nearby 
friendly positions or when the aircraft turn heading is directly over enemy 
positions. (The FAC should advise the aircraft of the enemy situation on 
the ground, where the threat is located, description, direction of aircraft 
pullout, location of friendlies, attack heading, type ordnance needed, air- 
craft pull out direction will be given towards friendly position not the 
enemy to prevent the attacking aircraft from being shot down.) 



1. You are safest if the attacks are parallel to your front. 

2. Attack toward your position is undesirable because of possible ricochets 
and ordnance early release. 



148 



3. Attack over an attack frcm behind and over 
undesirable because of the dumping of empty ce 
creating a missle hazard. 




friendly positions are also 
overboard as they strafe 



can be either preplanned 
field for immediate close air 



11. REQUESTS AND COMMUNICATIONS . Airstrike requests 
or could be requested from ground troops in the 
support. 

1. ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF A REOffiST . 

a. Requester's identification, (call sign) . 

b Request type and priority. (state whether the request is for a pre- 
planned or immediate mission, also designated the priority of the request. 
(priority is only essential in cases where several requests have been suhmr 

c. Target description. 

d. Time on target. (Indicate the time desired and the latest time 

if it is not immediate request.) 




e. Desired ordnance 



f . Target location. 

g. Direction of pullout. 
h. Friendly 1 s position. 



i. Aircraft attack heading. 

i. Situation on the ground, location of enemy, friendlies. 



149 



C-2 CALL FOR FIRE 



,™^ a * J**™* 11 ^ **** cal * £°r fire will go through the forward air control 
(FAC) In the event the FAC is ahsent, ground personnel may direct strike 
flights onto targets. Corrections to the target must be simple, clearly 
understood, and fast (timely) . Cardinal directions are preferred over clock 
reference or attack heading corrections. 

b. The observer-target method of correcting mortar or artillery fires 
could be dangerously confusing in a fast moving air strike. For example a 

SS^ rd x a± f controller would tell a pilot to place the next burst 300 meters 
WORTH of the previous rounds rather the RIGHT 300. 

(1) Observer identification and location. Use smoke 
Avoid use of red or white smoke to indicate friendly positions 
used to indicate enemy positions and may draw fire. 

(a) Notify the pilot that you have thrown smoke, let him 
identify the color, then confirm the identification. 

(b) Colored panels may be used to identify friendly troop' 
give the pilot the general direction of attack. Ensure identification. 



as these are 



(c) Any 
flaming arrows may be used. 



expedient means such as T-shirts, tracer rounds, or 



(d) Remember, any method you use to mark your ] 
reveal your location to the enemy. Use caution! Try to show 

to the friend lv ai Trma-F-f- whonttr&r rv-w-o-iv. i ^ 



(2) Methods 
and pilot have the sai 
by: 




Ensure that 
Targets i 



(a) Grid coordinates. 



made) . 



(b) 



Reference to prominent terrain features (natural or man- 



(c) Colored smoke 
lery, or recoil less rifles. 



fired from previous aircraft or from mortar. 



if the pilot is not 
the target but does 
command to move him 
the aircraft to 1 



(d) Simulated attack runs may be m 
of the target. He attacks the position he thinks 
expend ordnance. From this you can adjust by ver 
target. (Avoid this method when possible as it 
enemy. Use only when absolutely necessary.) 

(e) Reference to observer's location (i.e., polar coordinates 
consisting of a cardinal direction and distance) . 

(3) Pertinent information about the target. 

(a) Target and friendly troop separation distance. 



150 



NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE 
SCOUT/SNIPER SCHOOL 



DATE 



DOG EVASION 



INTRODUCTION 



Man has used the dog for military purposes for thousands of years The 
Egyptians, Huns r Remans, all resorted to the use of Guard and Tracker dogs a 
no doubt the evasion tactics employed then have changed very little. Henry 
VTII provided Spain with large attack dogs, wearing spiked collars, to fiqht 
the French. * 



The availability of chemical aids is limited. With the current trend of 
est shown by many Governments, some progress will be made in this field, 
s m all research, finance, and more pressing needs must take precedence 



It is also possible 

dog to overcome evasive 
a beacon for the dog to 



to produce chemical aids for the handler and his 
aids. The result could be the evasive aid becoming 
home on. 



These very general notes are therefore written for the guidance of 
personnel who find it necessary to evade working dogs and in so doinq have 
no chemical aids available 



If you are supplied with such chemical or mechanical aids, use them as 
an addition to your evasion technique and not as a replacement. 

The dog used for Military purposes must conform to certain requirements 
irrespective of its breed. These can be summed up as follows: - 



Physical 



Height in shoulder 22 to 26 inches 

Weight varying from 45 lbs to 100 lbs plus 

Speed in excess of 25 miles per hour 



Temperament 



Intelligent, 

ic. 




Courageous, Faithful, Adaptable, 



r breeds havi: 
:, Rottweiler 
Labrador etc 



, such as Al sat ion, 
Boxer, Collie, Groenendael, 






The breed of dog employed at a particular base may be vari< 
the climatic conditions under which it will work. Humidity and 
being the main factors involved. 



to suit 




SIGHT 



The dog relies very little on sight during its day to day activities 



155 




It's attention is, however, drawn by movement and if it's interest is roused, 
will follow up with hearing and nose. 

Dogs have nonochrcme vision, with a limited depth of field. There 
appear to be areas at certain distances where focus varies. As in humans, 
vision varies from dog to dog, as does the inclination to use sight. 

At night the dog is able to detect movement, due mainly to its low 
position looking up at the skyline. It makes more use of what light is 
available. 

SOUND 

With a range of hearing twice that of humans, the dog is attracted by 
noise not received by the handler. Beware of equipment rubbing together, 
radio equipment, burners, etc. The distance at which received is very much 
affected by weather in particular wind and rain. Obey the rules of approach 
from down wind. 

Dogs used for military purposes are divided into two basic groups. Those 
which rely on scent carried in the air and those who rely on scent held on 
the ground. 

The very basic division is applicable mainly to training and there is 
no doubt that an experienced dog in either field will naturally progress from 
one scent source to another when the need and the interest is great enough. 

However, the division into these two groups is sufficient for evasion 
purposes. Many rules apply to both. Bear in mind that there can be great 
variations in requirement from types of dogs for instance - using air scent 
e.g. Guard, Defense and Search. The same will apply to those using ground 
scent . 

SCENT 

The dog's sense of smell is many thousands greater than our own. 
Through it's olfactory organs it has the ability to detect a source of scent, 
either by following air currents, or tracks left on the ground. This natural 
ability to hunt has been controlled by man, and the search and tracker dogs 
have emerged. These dogs must have the physical capability of following 
such tracks for many miles. 



combination 



many sources 



BODY SCENT 



The smell of the himan body, made up of 'body odour* produced in 
abundance by the sweat glands, in particular under the arms, legs, etc. 
This particular odour is increased by rapid movement, nervousness tension, I 
various types of food and uncleanliness. 

To this odour, we must add the following: 



156 



Clothing, deodorants, toiletry, shoe leather, polish, chemical aids 
if used on clothing, environment (Patrol, oil, timber, etc.), and many 
other that the human may have been in contact with. 

Race and creed play a part in the individual definition of a particular 
scent. 

The amount of total body scent, produced is greatly affected by con- 
stitution, activity and mental state. 

It therefore follows, that in many respects you can control your flow 
of body scent. Keep cool, calm and more with confidence. 

GROUND SCENTT 

Body scent deposited by the soles of the feet, plus body scent drifting 
down, but mainly ground disturbance caused by the weight of the man on the 
ground. 

This contact of the foot produces scent from the following sources. 
Crushed vegetation, insects, deposits from shoes. The breaking of the sur- 
face allowing gas and moisture to escape. All these scents added together 
produce the main scent for the tracking dog. 

Airborn scent is soon dispersed leaving the dog with the ground scent 
only. An experienced tracking dog can follow this scent up to forty eight 
hours afterwards, in virgin, humid territory. 

The trained tracker dog can find the direction of the track. This is 
possible because of the purchase of the foot. The toe part of the impression 
is deeper, and remains in contact longer. After examination of several 
foot contacts the dog can follow the track in the correct direction. 

Because of the natural evaporation taking place on the surface, with 
variation in moisture and gas movement, the basic content of each track varies 
from minute to minute. This variation together with the deposited body scent 
makes every track different. It is this variation and the ability of the 
dog to compute through its olfactory system the basis of each track, that 
the dog can follow an individual scent, even when many other tracks are 




THE TRACKING DOG 

The following will give an evader sufficient detail to make a good 
attempt at tracker dog evasion. As no two dogs react in the same way to a 
given set of circumstances, we can only generalize. It is for this reason 
that the notes are in three groups. 

1. Before contact with enemy 

2. Contact frcm a distance 

3. Close contact 



157 




These headings are for convenience only, and any of the acts giver 
be applied to each quite successfully. 

1. Before any contact is made with the Enemy 

a. Associate oneself as much as possible with the surroundings. 
The rules of physical camouflage should also apply to personal scent, 
in with the surroundings. Alien scents attract the dog. 

b. Travel over ground already used by humans or animals. 

c. When travelling in groups split up every now and then. This need 
be for only a short distance, but will be sufficient to slow the dog down. 

d. When preparing food, take care as to direction of smoke and fumes. 
Handle wrapper and containers as little as possible. When burying, do not 
handle the ground, use metal instrument. If possible, sink in deep water. 

e~ When entering or leaving L.U.P's, do so from different directions. 
Make false trails round perimeter of L.U.P. 

f . Follow to the side of animal tracks, thereby leaving no footprints. 

2. Contact fran a distance Visual contact or dog locating track 

a. Speed and distance. Tire the dog, destroy handler's confidence. 

b. If in group, arrange R.V. Split up. 



c. Vary surface and terrain. Where 
cross and re-cross at intervals. 



possible use metalled surfaces, 



d. Pass through fields which contain, or have contained, animals. 

e. When travelling through woods, scrub or brush, change direction 
frequently. Remember dog will usually be on a line. This becomes easily 
tangled, and will slow or stop dog for a time. 

f . If possible cross streams etc. Walk along streams for short distance 
and make false exit and entry points. Walking too far in water will slow own 
progress to much. 

g. Take any step which slow dog without further endangering self e.g. 
false trails, use of roads, entry into villages. 

3. Close Contact - Dog in position to be released and able to attack. 

a. Get out of sight of handler. 

b. Change direction 

c. Use metalled, stone, rough surfaces 

d. Pass through animals 



158 






e. Clear obstacles 

f. Shed articles of clothing food etc., any scientific aids 

g. Wherever possible try to part handler from dog. 

h. If dog catches up with patrol - silent destruction, us in 

for guard dog. 

There are many factors which affect scent, and a dogs scenti 
lities. These factors can best be summarized as follows: - 



Favourable 



Unfavourable - 



Moist ground conditions 
Vegetation, grass fern, etc. 
Humidity 

Forest areas 

Light rain, mist, fog 

Slew moving quarry 

Quarry carrying heavy burden 

Nervous quarry - excess perspiration 

A number of persons on the move 

Light winds 

Still, s turgid water, i.e. swamp 

Arrid 

No vegetation 

Metalled surfaces, sand, stone 
Animal scents, tracks 
Motor, factory, pollution 
dust, etc. irritating to dogs nose 
Quarry continually taking evasive steps 
resulting in handler losing confideno 
Ploughed ground 
Gale Force winds 
Ice, snow, water 



in dog 



THE GUARD DOG 



The larger breeds of dog are used for this purpose. The final objective 
being to chase and attack. It must have the courage, and physical capability 
to fulfil the objective. It is useful to note that various methods of trainin 
are employed throughout the world, varying from compulsion to revulsion. 
Irrespective of training design, the end product is basic - Attack and Detain. 

The guard dog is operated in two ways; with a handler on leash or roaming 
free in a compound, whichever method is employed, the dog will rely primarily 
on its hearing and scenting ability to detect intruders. It's sight, being 
less developed, will be used as an auxilliary detection, the dog being drawn 
to a particular area by movement. 

After detecting an intruder, the dog will operate on ccranand of the 
handler or on situation stimulas. The handler command is normal, but the 
situation stimulas is where a dog is released into a compound and will attack 
any person entering, other than a known guard or collection vehicle. Some 
dogs are so trained that any person is attacked, it being necessary to collect 



159 



directly into a cage within the compound. Here the basic command to attack 
is the physical presence of a human being. 

In either case the dog will retain its grip on its quarry until ordered 
to leave. In the case of highly aggressive dogs, strict compulsion may be 
neces sary . 

It is this courage and ability of the dog that makes it vulnerable to 
the intruder. Pad oneself as described below, encourage the dog to attack, 
biting in a place that you dictate. Present a target to the dog, thereby 
placing it in a position in which it can be immobilized or destroyed. 

Adequate protection can be had from wrapping round the arm any of the 
following, webbing belt, leggings, rifle sling, ponchos, wrapping frcm 
equipment, scarves, headgear. Always have a layer of softer material inside 
and outside your main protection. The inner layer to take seme of the pressure, 
the outer to give the dog something to grip on. 

The dog is far less dangerous if it makes firm contact on the first run 
in. If it falls off or is deterred, it will look for an alternative target 
and then begin to dictate the situation to you. 

Throughout its training the dog has always been allowed to succeed. 
It is this inbuilt confidnece tn its own ability that encourages the dog to 
overcome every obstacle. Give it the opportunity to succeed and then destroy. 
It is most vulnerable when gripping target. 

Remember a dog deterred will bark or growl, drawing the attention of 

the guards. 

To avoid initial detection, obey the following simple rules: - 

1. Always approach from down wind. 

2. As silently as possible. 

3. Ensure you cover the last part of the journey as slowly as possible 
thereby cutting down excretion of body odour. 

4. Keep all garments securely fastened. Where a draw cord is fitted, 
keep it tied. 

5. If you have to stop for any reason before entering the perimeter do 
so outside the 200 meter mark. Within this distance dogs have detected 
intruders travelling against the wind as well as with the air flow. 

6. Keep as low as possible, use natural hollows. The air scent will 
be obstructed by undergrowth or barriers. 

7. Be aware of changes in scent direction caused by barriers, i.e. 
around buildings. 



8. Approach from an area where you know other humans 
approach frcm. The dog pays less attention to areas where it 





in, or 
there 



160 



I to be persons or vehicles. It may be attracted, but under some circumstances, 

I this identification will be misinterpreted by the handler. 

9. When within the perimeter fence, remember, the dog relies mainly on sound 
and scent. Its attention will be drawn by movement. If you are down wind 
and the dog is passing, keep still. Guards have passed within 10 yards without 
being attracted. 

10. The average guard dog will have difficulty in detecting persons up high. 
If they do, they have difficulty in pinpointing locations. This delay will 
give you time to operate. 

DESTRUCTION 

The destruction of a trained dog is by no means a simple matter. The 
situation is made more difficult for the evader, by the necessity for silence, 
or at least a degree of quiet. 

It is often easier to take the dog and immobilize, by either tying to 
a secure fitting, or binding the front legs. Always muzzle, and if possible 
render it inopperable, example, breaking a leg. 

Actual destruction may be by any of the following: - 

1. Stab through abdomen, aiming from rear to front. 

2. Sticking pointed stick, spear into abdonen 

3. Severe blow to skull 

4. Shooting through skull, aiming above, and in centre of line drawn dia- 
gonally from ear to eye. 

5. Shooting through back 

6. Chop at back of neck just before shoulders 

Whichever method is decided upon, supreme physical effort must be 
exerted. The dogs skeletal system is such that is is virtually armour plated. 
Go for the soft spots, the abdomen, or the point beneath the chin, and above 
the brest bone. 

THE SEARCH DOG 

This dog, trained to quarter an area, with minimum conmand. On location 
of an intruder, to give tongue, or return and collect handler and patrol. 

Relies mainly on locating source of air borne scent. Make sure that 
you keep that source as small as possible. 

When in an L.U.P. observe the following: - 

1. Keep as close to the ground as possible. 

2. Have the majority of clothing over you, let the earth absorb the scent. 

161 



3. Breath down into the ground, or at least into low vegetation. 

4. Keep still. 

5. If burying items, do so underneath your lying point, all smells kept 
down by body and covering. 



6* Restrict smoking, fires, etc. 
alien scent. 



Dogs whilst searching are drawn by any 



7, This type of dog is more inclined to circle and bark, or collect handler 
Depart when possible and use normal evasion techniques. 

8. In all circumstances if located, and escape not possible, catch and 




Remember always, that the dog be it guard, search or tracking, is 
reliant on command frcm a handler. These commands may be by voice, whistle 
or hand signal. They may not be continuous, or obvious, but are always 
necessary. It is this reliance of the dog on the human that makes an opening 
for the evader. Part them, and the dog begins to lose confidence. Change 
the dog's surrounding and irrmediately its sense of security is weakened. 

Always aim to: - 

a. Destroy the confidence of the handler in his dog. 

b. The confidence of the dog in the handler. 

c. Confidence in themselves. 

CONCLUSION 

There are many and varied opinions regarding evasion. This state of 
uncertainty is due mainly to the very limited amount of proven information 
we have of the dogs interpretation of scent, and it's ability to distinguish 
between scents. 

As humans we tend to base all theories on our own standards, thus 
expecting the dog to live up to our requirements. 

The dog does not have the capability to penetrate the human mind, 
although there may be a transference of feeling. We r on the other hand, can 
study the psychological qualities of the dog, and understand him. In so 
doing, discover his weaknesses, and his vulnerable points. 



162 



^r^^*^^^m^—"i^^ 



\ 



NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE 
SCOUT/SNIPER SCHOOL 



DATE 



EVASION 



INTRODUCTION 



1. This is designed as an aide to Evasion. It does not constitute rules. 
The necessity to evade in the present day could occur from: 

a. A breakout from EW Camp. 

bp A breakout from a surrounded position in small numbers or as an 
individual . 

c. As a result of tactical nuclear strikes and the eventual disorgani- 
zation of Corps and divisional boundaries. 

MOVE BY DAY 

2 Moves whether of individuals or groups must be planned in advance. Moving 
w a^t i c in^,i«hi^ Hit sometimes unavoidable i.e. after a PW breakout 



distance 



MOVE BY NIGHT 



3 90% of evasive moves should be by night. But darkness often breeds over 
confidence. There will be a compromise between taking the easiest route and 
avoiding going where the enemy expect you. Study and manor ise your route in 
order to avoid using light to map read. 

4 Never move on roads. If crossing a road, locate sentries and if necessary 
use a diversion. (Cross inmediately after a vehicle has passed, noise and 
light.) 

5. Never cross bridges. Try improvising rafts in order to keep clothing dry, 
or swim. 

6 In hills avoid using ridges as you are likely to be silhouetted and 
remember you can be seen from below for a greater distance than you can see. 
After crossing a skyline change direction on a downwards slope and look 
behind to see you are not being followed. 

7 . Keep away from population of any kind. ALWAYS have at least one emergency 
RV. Know how long it will be open. When you are making for W after enemy 
contact, make sure you are not followed. 



8 



two 




151 



9. Avoid walking in mud, through standing crops < 
tracks will be left. Leaving litter or any signs 
up area is asking for trouble. 



10 . Danger 



The following points will help evasion in dangerous areas 



a. Cordons. These are relatively easy to pass at night. If you watch 
for up to 2 hours some enemy soldier will give away his position by 
noise, movement or normal sentry relief. Once a position is located 
pass as near to it as you safely can. 



b. Cordons will nearly always 
be quickly deployed off them. 
enemy have available helicopte: 
cordons to be in low ground or 
above becomes very important. 



be near roads because enemy transport can 
This will not however be the case if the 
s in quantity. If they are heard expect 
to use flares from high ground. Para 6 



c. Cross roads imnediately after vehicle using light which haj 
These will blind enemy sentries who seldom, if ever shut their 
the light. 



d. Imitate 
particular 
you must be 



:te of enemy sentries foj 
Learn at least one phr 
able to say it fluently. 



so 




far so possible. In 

in his language, but 



LYING UP POSITION (LUP) 

11. Selection. Do not use isolated cover, particularly if it is marked on 
a map. A thick hedge or long grass if often better than small woods. 

12 . Entry 



a. Whenever possible after dark. 

b. Be careful not to leave tracks 
organize position at first light. 



If possible re- 



13. Siting 



a. Concealed from ground and air. 

b. If possible only one good approach. 

c. Easy escape route. 

d. Near water if you intend to stay more than one day. Otherwise take 
water in with you during the night. 

e. A good location for an LUP would be long grass, vegetation or scrub 
in an isolated position. 

14. Procedure in LUP 

a. Keep quiet and still. 



152 



b. Have a sentry if in a group of more than two. 

c. Bury ali refuse. 

d. Kit always packed and if in possession of weapons, clean one at a 
time. 

e. Men always ready to move quickly i.e. compass, rations, map on 
body. Weapon at hand. 

f . Emergency RV must be known and withdrawal route planned. 

g. Before evacuating site search for any avoidable trace of occupation 

h. Smoking must be controlled i.e. smoke showing by day, cigarette 
end glowing by night. 

PARTISANS OR AGENTS 
15. There are basically two types of contacts an escapee can make: 



a. An organized contact after a PW breakout, with prior knowledge of 



RVs. 



b. A chance contact, not previously planned, with a reliable source 
i.e. a doctor or priest in an enemy occupied area. 

16. The civilian agent if caught has more to lose than you so after making 
contact r 

a. Make up vour mind to trust or distrust him. 



b. Ensure RVs are secure and that you have a drill at them i.e. one 
man entering before remainder when in a group. 

c. Do all the agent says, but never say who previous contact was. 

d. In the case of 16(b) ensure that he is alone before contacting. 

e. Have an energency RV in case something goes wrong. 

17. It is the personal determination of the escapee which will ensure his 
success. Compliance with the above principles will only serve to make the 
task easier. 



153 



AN/PRC-117 



Lesson purpose: To familirize SEAL scout sniper In the operation of the AN/PRC-117 



Objective: To familirize the SEAL scout sniper in the capiblities and operation of 
the AE/PR0117 for future field use. 



LESSEN OBJECTIVE: 



a. To familirize the SEAL sniper in: 

1. Equipment setup, 

2. Equipment characteristics and capabilities and features 



3. Sadio set characteristics and capabilities. 

4. Description and use of operators controls and indicators 



TRAINING OBJECTIVE: 



Tc Train the SEAL scout sniper in the required stills needed to operate the AHf/FfiC- 
117 in a field enviroment . 



163 



ANYPEC-117 



GENERAL : 



Frequency 30oo to 89.975 MHz. 

Channel spacing 25 KHz. 

Preset channels 6 programmable 



JFumber di channel 



2400. 



Kad.es of operation: 

1- Narrow band voice. 

2. Vide band , data (to 16K bits/sec) 

3. Retransmit. 

4. Simplex or half-duplex. 



Battery BA-5590 or 



nickel cadmium, rechargeable. 



Battery life 20 hours at 1 watt, 12 hours at 10 watts. 
Weight 12.75 lbs. (includes battery, ant tenna, handset) . 



OPERATION OF THE SADTO set. 



a. Turn all controls up. 



This easy to remember rule gives the simplest starting post ion when picking up the 
radio. 



b. Push TKST/T.OAn. 



This initiates self-test. The L.E.D. display shoes the status of the radio set 

(1) NORKAL - Battery voltage displays, then goes blank. 

<2) FAULT - Battery voltage displays, then "A h and number of faulted module. 



NOTE: Use self -test as often as needed during radio 
voltage and overall radio function. Self -test can be 
and RSI. 



operation to check battery 
used in any mode except PRGRH 



164 



<1) Channel - Select MAIUAL or PROGRAMMING FREQUENCY -1-7. 



(2) Mode - Select a SQUELCH mode for transmission/ reception: 



* OFF - JFo sauelch. 



* NOISE - Receiver squelched tint ill carrier is detected 

* TONE - Receiver squelched until carrier is detected. 



JTOTE: These squelch modes are fully Aff/?EC - 77 compatible. A radio sex far TONE 
SQUELCH made can only receive from a radio t ra ns mi t i ng the 150 Hz sub-carrier tone 



d. Push to talk. 



2, 



m FREQUEffCY-MATOftl. CHAH1EL . (SIMPLEX MODE) 



STQTS: Simplex Eode Is when the radio set is transmitting and receiving on the same 
frequency. 

NOTE: Half -duplex mode is when the radio set is transmitting and receiving an 
different frequencies. 



a. Set these controls: (SIMPLEX OPEKATIQE) 



» VOLUME - on. 



* Channel - MAMUAL. 



* Mode - any past ion other than SCAif or RMT 



h. Push DISPLAY. 



c. Select frequency. 



* Toggle the MHz and KHz switches UP or DOVN. 

* Display blanks automatically after a few seconds. 



165 



* To recheck the frequency, push DISPLAY. 



* 5ETTIBTG FREQUENCY - MMUA 



. (HALF-DUPLEX) 



ffOTE: 



: Do sets d-g only if transmit frequency differs from receive frequency. 

K3TE: Far half-duplex operation on the manual channel, first enter the receive 
frequncy using steps a-c. Then install the handset and do these steps: 



d. Key the handset (KEEP KEYED UETILL STEP g) . 



e. Push DISPLAY. 



f. Select new transmit frequency displays. 
* Toggle the MHz and KHz switches UP or DGW 



g. ' Release the handset key. 

* Display blanks automatically after a few seconds. 

* To recheck the receive frequency, push DISPLAY. 

* To recheck the transmit frequency, key the handset, then push DISPLAY. 



* PBflflKAMTffO 




- CHANNELS 1-7. (SIMPLEX MODE) 



a. Set these controls: 



* VOLUME - Dn. 



* CANCEL -1-7 



* HGDE - PRGRM. 



Set DISPLAY DIM AJTD XMT PGVER as desired 



b. Push DISPLAY. 



* Current frequency displays. Display must be lit for frequency to be changed 



166 



c. Select frequency, 

* Toggle the KHz and KHz switches UP or DOVBF 



d. Vith frequency displayed, push TEST/ LOAD, 
f The display blanks after a few seconds. 
* To recheck the frequency, push DISPLAY. 

(EXCEPTION: 60.000 display may mean a jumper option prevent recall of frequency 
manul for more information) . 



see 



* PPUGKAWttlfiTO FREQUEICY - CHA 



- 7 . (HALF-DUPLEX) 



lfOTE: For half -duplex opreation on programed channels, first enter the receive 
frequency using steps a - d then, install the handset and da steps e - i: 



e. Key the handset (keep keyed untill step 9). 



f. Push DISPLAY 



* Current transmit frequency displays 



g. Select the transmit frequency. 

* Toggle the KHz and KHz switches UP or DQVN 



h. Vith frequency displayed, push TEST/LOAD. 



i. Release the handset key. 

* The display blanks after a few seconds. 



NOTE: Whenever the receiver frequency is re programed, the transmit frequency 
automatically reverts to the new receive frequency. 



3. ADJUST 




167 



a. 



XHT POWER CONTROL . 



(1) Controls transmitting power 



* LOV = 1 VATT. 



* HIGH =10 VATT. 



For longest battery lift, set at HIGH only when necessary 



(2) VOLUME CONTROLS. 



* Controls on/aff and audio volume. 



(3) DISPLAY DIM/VSPS COHTPQLS 



a. DIM. 



* Controls LED display brightness. Turn cont ere loci: wise to dim display. 

b. VSPR (VHISPER). 

* In transmit, VSPR post ion increases audio gain at the mouthpiece 10 dB. (When 
whispering, full audio power is transmitted. ) 



(4) FREQUENCY CONTROLS. 

* Used to select frequencies. Active only when display is lit 



4. SCAN. 



* Using SCAN capability to continuously scan radio activity on all 8 channels 



(1) For SCAN operation, set up these controls: 



a. VOLUME - on. 



b. Channel - any channel (keying is enabled on selected channel) 



c. Made - SCAN. 



d. Set DISPLAY DIM and XKT POWER as desired 



168 



JTOTE: ECC-H channels 5,&,and 7 are programmed with codes - not discrete frequencies 
as for channels 1-4. 

d. Enter the first cade as in PROGRAMMING FREQUENCY steps a - d. 

NOTE: The upper 2 (KHz) digits of the code determines the 5 MHz ECCK hand used by the 
signal. The right ones (KHz) digit and lower 3 (KHz) digits of the code determine 
part of the random "HOPPING" pattern for ECCK transmission and reception on this 
channel 



ECCM FREQUENCY BA3JDS (MHz): 



30.000 
35.000 
40.000 
45.000 
50.000 
55.000 



34 . 975 
39,975 
44.975 
49.975 
54.975 
59.975 



60. 000 
65. 000 
70.000 
75.000 
30.000 
85.000 



54,975 
69.975 
74.975 
79,975 
84,975 

ACl Q7R 



7. E££HL 



a. In general, use of ECC* channels no differently from non-ECCM channels, Remenber 
that ECCm is not operational in SCAft mode. 



(1) 'MODE CONTROL POSTIDtf. 

a. Vie radios in a network are set up in the same ECCM codes t they are compatible 
for ECCM communications in either OFF, TONE, or NOISE SQUELCH modes. 

h. Minimum synchronizing information is transmitted when all network radio are set 
ta NOISE or OFF SQUELCH modes, 

c. When radios are set to TONE mode for ECCM operation, each keying synchronizes the 
network. 



<2) CLEAR-NET ENTRY, 



a. During ECCM operation, use this automatic scanning sequence to respon to non-ECCM 
calls. 

b. Vhen set to an ECCM channel, the radio automatically scans a single clear (non- 
ECCM) channel . 

c. Set to ECCM channel 5, the radio scans clear channel 1, Set to channel 6, it 
scans clear channel 2. Set to channel 7, it scans clear channel 3, 



169 



1T0TE: As the radio scans, it blinks tie decimal point an the L. E. D. display. Vhen it 
detects a singal on a channel, the radio displays "C« and the number of the channel 

I. - 1 (eXSample; C ° indicates si S*al detected at the KAffUAL channel frequency.) The 
radio locks in" a channel at the same time, allowing the operator to hear the 
recieved signal. The radio continues to loci in a channel as long as the sisral is 
being recieved. The display blanks after a few seconds. 



When contact is broken, the radio contiues to scan, begining with 'the next channel. 



The radio scans at a rate of approximately 10 channels per seconds. Vhen scanning 
fewer than B channels, it may be more advantageous to load the same frequencies -ore 
than once - using otherwise unused channels to shorten scan responce time 



5. 



IffO TN SCAT? unrpr; 



* The 

CONTROL 

made. 



■adio allows transmission in the SCAI mode Off CHATTELS SELECTED BY TH* CHANHF 
The antenna is automatically tuned for transmission on this channel in SCAff" 



* .Vhen using this feature, remember that the radio will continue scanning in ^h- 
mode when not transmitting. ( The radio could lock in a channel different froaTt^ 
one you are using, tempotarily preventing you from receiving in this mode. Ke r 'n* the 
handset puts the radio set back on the channel selected on channel control.) ° 



6. SCAI 




CHANNELS 5-7 



ECC* V fllV he A3f/PRC : 11? VI ™ ■ channels ^ - 7 are dedicated for frequency-hopping 
tiA^a transmission and reception. F 6 

SOTE; The radio cannot detect ECCtt transmission while in the SCAB mode. 

NOTE: The radio does not transmit a freqency-hopping signal when keyed in SCAN mode. 

ECC* operations is not compatible with SCAff mode operation because of the unique 
charcteristics of the frequency-hopping signal. unique 



shanne^ SC ?t f^' IT 7^° tmt * ECCM channels 5 - 7 in the same as other radio 
shannelo. It scans the frequnecy entered in any of these channels for a received 

ic^EQ^ 5 ' *' " ' ** «*■ transmission is not 



<3> FS QGBAMIffO ECCM CffAITTgKT.S , 



a. 



To program ECCM channels, use steps of PEOGKAHM I JfG FSEQUE3TCY. 



170 



d. The radio set scans wherever it is actively transmitting or receiving. 

e. Vhen a clear channel signal is detected, the radio beeps in the handset and 
displays M C1" , "C2" , or "OS 11 for the detected channel. 

f. To transmit or recieve on this clesr channel, set the CHAFHEL CONTROL to the 
CLEAR ffU&BER displayed. Otherwise, ECCJC operation continues. 

g. For the clear channel, use a frequency within the 5 MHz band used by the 
corresponding ECCM channel. Select TUBE squelch on clear channel radios. 



171 



AHVPSC - 3 



Lesson purpose: To familirize SEAL scout sniper in the operation of the ABT/FSC-3, 



Objective: To familirize the SEAL scout sniper in the capiblities and operation of 
the AI/PSC-3 for future field use. 



LESSEN OBJECTIVE: 



a. To familirize the SEAL sniper in: 

1. Equipment setup. 

2. Equipjaent characteristics and capabilities and features, 

3. Radio set characteristics and capabilities. 

4. Description and use of operators controls and indicators 



TRAINING OBJECTIVE: 



TO Train the SEAL scout sniper in the required stills needed to operate the AN/PSC-3 
in a field enviroinent. 



172 



GEJTERIAL I HFORHAT 1 03f : 



The Atf/PSC-3 is a portable radio set designed for satelite c ommuni cat ions t it also 
processes the capiblity of ( UHF LINE 0? SIGHT ) communi cat ions. The radio set is 
designed for long range tactical ground ta ground and air tD ground communi cations. 
The radio set can be used with COHSEC TSEC/KY-57 speech security equipment for secure 
voice communi cation. 



1. 




(1) Portable, 



(2) One band - UHF { line of sight ) 



<3) Tactical mode. 



a. Ground to ground 



b. 



Ground to air. 



(4) Secure voice mode. 



a. When used with attaching cable and CGMSEC/KY-57. 



(5) Preset channels 

a. Up to 4 preset channels can be set into radio memory before a mission 



(6) Battery types. 
a. 2 each non - rechargeable BA - 5590/U lithium organic batteries 



2. PESCBiPTTnir n? 




ME1S. 



<1) Receiver - transmitter. 



173 



a. Contains controls, indicators and electronics to operate the radio set in 
SAT-COMK. and UHF line of sight tactical modes. 



(2) Battery case. 



a. Houses the batteries 



(3) Batteries, 



a. Supply power for operation of the radio set 



(4> Handset. 



a. Provides audio input/output for the radio set. 



(5) UHF antenna. 



a. Used during Line of sight operation. 



(S) SAT-COHK antenna (DMC-120). 



a. Used during satelite operation 



(7> KY-57 baseband cable assembly, 

a. Connects between RT. AUDED connector and KY-57 unit during secure voice 
operation. 



3. QEEEAX 



lUCTIOiTS . 



GENERAL: 

Controls, indicators and connectors used by the operator of the radio set are 
discussed in two groups. 

a. Display. 

b. Controls and connectors. 



l. Display. 

(1) The display indicates frequency entered in the radio set 



174 



1 



nd connect 



a. 



\ 



(1). Power on/power off, adjust the raitune of the radio. 



b. 



XL 



(13. Hanualy sets the radio set to SAT-COMH. or LIKE OF SIGHT operation 






c. Display switch . 



(IK Controls the brightness of the display pannel. 



d, Up/ down - link 




ncy 



itch.. 



'(1). XI sets the frequency for the radio set to the down link C RECEIVE ) mode. 
<2). X2 sets the frequency for the radio set to the up link ( TRANSMIT ) mode. 



e. Sat offset switch. 



(1). Presets four different frequencies in the radio set memory 



e. 



(1). Send mode. flanaly adjusts the desired frequencies up or down. 



(2>. RCV node. Set the radio set in the receive /transadt mode. 



f. 




Li£h, 



(IK Adjusts the squelch to the radio set. 



g. XMT power 



175 



(1). Manuly adjusts the radio set power Dutput. 



SAT CQMfl, 



1. FUCTION SWITCH TO SAT, 

2. DISPLAY SWITCH ON BRIGHT. 

3. UP-LINK FREQ MODE SWITCH TO X2. 

4. SAT OFFSET SWITCH TO A, B, C, OR D. C FOUR SETS OF FREQS CAN BE PRESET FOR QUICK 
ACCESS), 

5. MODE SWITCH TO XI. ( DOWN-LINK FREQ ) 

6. CALL SWITCH TO SEND, 

8. WHILE HOLDING CALL SWITCH II SEND, ADJUST KHz AND MHz, UP OR DOWN TO DESIRED 
FREQUENCY 

9. t RELEASE CALL SWITCH, < AFTER DESIRED FREQS. ARE ENTERED.) THIS WILL LOAD FREQS AND 
WILL AUTOMATION RETURN TO RCV POSTIQN. 

10. ADJUST MODE SWITCH TO X2. ( UP-LINK FREQ ) 

11. REPEAT STEPS 6 THROUGH 9 . 

12. RETURN MODE SWITCH TO X2. ( TO TRANSMIT ) 



SXLASfi. 



!]JR£S; 



1. PSC-3 VOLUME SWITCH ON FULL, 

2. PSC-3 SQUELCH SWITCH TURNED, ON. 

3. SELECT PROPER DAY CHANNEL 1 - 6 ON THE KY-57. 

4. TURN KY-57 OFF/ON/TD SWITCH - ON. 

5. XMT POWER SWITCH ON TH PSC-3, ADJUSTED TO 3/4 POWER. ( JUST TOUCHING THE GREEN 
LINE ) 

6. SET SPKK/KODE SWITCH, ON KY-57 TO, FT, ( PLAIN TEXT, ) 

7. POINT DMC-120 SATELITE ANTENNA IN PROPER COMPASS DIRECTION AND ELEVATION. 

8. KEY HANDSET AND RELEASE. < SPLASH SHOULD BE HEARD >, DNCE A SPLASH IS OBTAINED. 

9. SET THE SPKR/MODE SWITCH TO CT ON THE KY-57. 



176 



10, SET THE VOLUME SWITCH TO TEE CENTER ON THE XY-57 



11. SET THE OFF/ON/TD SWITCH TO TD. ( TIKE DELAY ) 



12. TURN SQELCH OFF, ON THE PSC-3. 



NOTE: HANDSET MUST BE CONNECTED TO THE KY-57 AUDIO CONNECTOR IN THE SECURE VOICE 
MODE. 



SIGHT PROCFJIRF.S 



1. CONNECT PROPER ANTEENA. 



2. FUNCTION SWITCH TO LOS MODE 



3. DISPLAY SWITCH ON BRIGHT. 



4\ UP LINK FREQ MODE SWITCH ON X2. < UHF FREQS ONLY ) 

5. SAT OFFSET SWITCH SET TO A,B,C, OR D. 

6. CALL SWITCH TO SEND. 

7. WHILE MANULY HOLDING CALL SWITCH IN THE SEND POSTION, ADJUST KHz AND MHz UP OR 
DOWN' TO THE DESIRED FREQUENCY, 

8. RELEASE CALL SWITCH, TO LOAD FREQS, C SWITCH WILL RETURNED TO RCV POSTION ) 



COUMMtfNICAT 



KY-57 OPERATION: 



1. DO STEPS 1-9. 



2. INSTALL CRYPTO CABLE. 



3. SELECT PROPER WEEK CODE. 



4. MODE SWITCH TO C. C CRYPTO ) 



5. QN/QFF/TD SWITCH TO ON POSTION. 

6. HANDSET CONNECTED TO KY-57. 



7. VOLUME SWITCH 3/4 ON. 



177 



LST-5B 
Lesson purpose: To familirise SEAL scout sniper in the operation of the LST-5B 



Objective; To familirize the SEAL scout 
tie LST-5B for future field use. 



sniper in tie capiblities and operation of 



LESSEN OBJECTIVE: 



a. To famillrize the SEAL sniper in: 
1- Ecuipinent setup. 

2. Equipment characteristics and capabilities and features. 

3. Radio set characteristics and capabilities. 

4. Description and use of operators controls and indicators 



TBAIffllTG OBJECTIVE: 



To Train the SEAL scout sniper in the required skills needed to operate the LST-53 
in a field enviroment . 



180 



GENERIAL INFORMATION: 



TURNING O ff THE UNIT . 



a. Turn en the radio set by turning the volume control knob clcckwi-^e. 

b. Set the vol'Jiae control for the desired volume C the SQ control must be in the 
iBaximim counter clockwise postion) > 



c- Adjusx the SQ control for the threshold by advancing 
until 1 the noise stops and the green H R" light goes out. 
further will reduce the sensitivity of squelch break. 



clockwise slowly, just 
Advancing the control 



m PRESET DATA 



1. All preset data is stored in an internal, non-volatile memer 
battery can be changed without disturbing the preset data, when 
on the display shows the last display in use when the radio set 
excepi the BCE and modem will always be turned off at turn on. 



ory 
the 
was 



T he power 
radio set is turn 
turned off, 



IfOTE: AFTER ALL PRESETS AND OPERATING MODES HAVE BEEN SELECTED, THE CURSOR SHOULD 3E 
SET OEF THE SCREEN TO PREVENT UNWANTED CHANGES IF THE SET KEY IS INADVERTENTLY 
PUSHED. 



NOTE: THE UNDERSIDE OF THE COVES CARRIES A LAELE INDICATING THE DATE THE MEMORY 
BATTERY VAS INSTALLED, THE BATTERY SHOULD BE REPLACED EVERY 2 YEARS. 



3. 



RING PRESE T FSEQPE3TCIE5. 



1. Ten frequenles from 225.000 to 399.995 KHz can be stored in preset channels CHI 
to CH9 and in * " with 5-KHz turning increments. 



2, In the frequency/preset display (inode la), a solid decimal point indicate: 
synthesizer is in phase locked. A flashing decimal paint indicates that the 
synthesizer is not in phase-lock and that a fault exists. 

3. Frequency cannot be stored when the decimal point is flashing. 



the 



181 



4. Improper frequency setting from 200.000 to 224.995 KHz cannot be entered 




5. When storing frequencies in preset channels, you must select the desired 
channel's number before setting the frequency. Preset frequencies are stored as shown 
in table 2-3. 



182 



OPES AT ISO PRDCEEDURES, 



1. 



■HT qpe: 



I 



The followin procedure is for unencrypted operations. 

1. ATTACH THE UHF ANTENNA AND THE H-189/GR HANDSET TO THE RADIO. 

2. TUBS THE RADIO SET Off , VOL CONTROL CLOCKWISE. 

3. SET THE SQ CONTROL TO OFF AND SET THE VOL CONTROL UNTILL NOISE IS HEARH IE THE 
HANDSET. 

4. USING THE COSFIGERATION DISPLAY (MODE 2) t SELECT THE OPERATING MODES PER TABLE 
2-4, THE SCN AND BCN MODES JOIST BE OFF. 

5. USING THE FREQUENCY/ PRESET DISPLAY (MODE la), SET THE OPERATING FREQUENT OR 
SELECT THE PRESET CHANNEL PER TAELE 2-3. 

6. TO TRANSMIT KEY THE HANDSET. 

-i 

7. TO RECEIVE. RELEASE THE PTT SWITCH AND LISTER TO THE HANDSET. 



5. 



TO ELIMINATE THE BACKGROUND 501 SE FROM THE HANDSET WHEN NO SIGNAL IS PRESENT, 
TURN THE SQ CONTROL CLOCKWISE UNTILL THE GREEN LIGHT GOES OUT. IF THE CONTROL IS 
SET TO THE FULL CLOCKWISE P0ST10N, RECEIVED SIGNALS CANNOT BE HEARD. 



FNCRYPED LOS OPERATION 



1. ATTACH THE UHF ANTENNA AND THE TSEC CABLE TO THE RADIO SET. 

2. ATTACH THE HANDSET AND THE TSEC CABLE TO THE KY-57. 



3. TURN THE RADIO SET ON. 

4. USING THE CONFIGERATION DISPLAY <M0DE2) , SELECT THE OPERATING MODES PER TABLE 
2-4. THE SCN AND BCN MODES MUST BE OFF. 

5. USING THE FREQUENCY /PRESET DISPLAY (MODE la), SET THE OPERATING FREQUENCY OR 
SELECT THE PRESET CHANNEL PER TABLE 2-3. 

6. SET THE SQ CONTROL AS IN STEP 8 ABOVE. RADIO SET IS READY TO TRANSMIT. 



183 



3. 



LRAlIQia. 



NOTE. OPERATION VIA SATEIIITE REQUIRES THE LST-5 TO TRANSMIT Off ONE FREQUENCY 
{UPLINK), WHILE IT RECEIVES ON ANOTHER (DOWNLINK) , THE LST-5 OPERATES USING SATELLITE 
CHANNELS VITH BANDWITHS OF EITHER 25 KHz OR 5 KHz. WITH A 25 KHz CHANNEL. THE 
MODULATION HODE VI LL BE FH FOR PLAN TEXT <PT) VOICE AND WHEN USING KY-57 IN THE CT 
MODE. 



NOTE, ON SOME SATELLITE CHANNELS, THE UPLINK FOVER LEVEL MAY BE RESTRICTED TO A 
MAXIMUM LEVEL OF EFFECTIVE, ISOTROPIC, RADIATED. POWER (EIRP). EIRP IS THE 
COMBINATION OF TRANSMITTER POWER PLUS ANTENNA GAIN MINUS ANY CABLE LOSS THAT MIGHT 
PRESENT 



BE 



NOTE. EIRP IS GENERALLY EXPRESSED IN dBVs. THE LST-5' S GUTPUT POWER CAN BE ADJUSTEd 
IN 2-VATT STEPS SO AS NOT TO EXCEED THE MAXIMUM EIRP. 



1. SAT CI 



ERATING PR 



t 25-KHz ) 



1. ATTACH THE SAT COMM ANTENNA TO RADIO SET. 

2. POINT ANTENNA TOWARDS SATELLITE, 

3. TURN RADIO SET ON, VOL. CDNTROL CLOCKEWISE. 

4. USING THE CONFIGURATION DISPLAY (MODE 2> I SELECT THE OPERATING MODES ( FM , XH I , St 
CT) PER TABLE 2-4, SCN AND BCN MUST BE OFF. 

5. USING THE FREQUENCY/T-R DISPLAY (MODE lb), SELECT THE PRESET TRANSMIT AND RECEIVE 
CHANNELS AS SHOWN IN TABLE 2-5. 

6. ADJUST THE SQ CONTROL TO A POSTION JUST SUFFICIENT TO TURN OFF THE GREEN LIGHT. 

7. CONNECT THE HANDSET THE KY-57 AND THE CABLE LINK BETWEEN THE KY57 AND THE RADIO 
SET, 

8. ADJUST POWER TO THE REQUIRED LEVEL USING TABLE 2-5, 



184 



12 

(J3) 




4BM* 



I I 



I 



LAZE 



I 



FREQ 


\T 


H 


FM XHt CT 

~i o n n n n 
J u u u u u 

AM JCLO PT 


SCN 

n 
u " 

OFF 


BCN 

n 
" u 

OFF 





Hi^>****n 



525B5-? 



Figure 2-1. Front Panel Controls, indicators and Connectors 



185 



Table 2-1 . Front Panel Controls, Indicators, and Connectors 



1 

Find Mo. 


Control 

Indicator, 

Connector 


Type 


Function 


1 


Liquid crystal 
display 

(LCD) 


1 7-segment display 


AJpha-numeric display with seven 
modes. 


2 


T 


Red LED 


When lit. indicates transmit on. 


3 


R 

i 


Green LED 


When lit, indicates receiver is 
unsquelched. 


4 


HOST 


6-pin audio 

1 connector 


■ — ■ -■■■ 

Handset connector for H-1 89/GR or 
H-250/U handset (J4) ; 


5 


STO 

j 


Pushbutton 
membrane switch 


— -« 1 

Used in display Mode 1 to store 
displayed frequency in selected 
PRESET channel. 

Note 

This switch is protected by a raised 
ridge to prevent accidental changes to 
stored frequencies. ! 


6 


SQ/OFF 


Rotary control 
with switch 


Sets squelch threshold or turns squelch 
off, for remote control. 


| 7 

i 

I 


SET 


Pushbutton 
membrane switch 


Used with the display modes to select 
frequencies, channels and operating 
modes. 


8 


CUR 

! 


Pushbutton 
membrane switch 


Used in the display modes to locate the 
cursor position (indicated by the j 
flashing digit or character). 


9 

i 
I 

, 


VOL/OFF 

aJOFF 

bJVOL 


Rotary control 
with switch 


Full CCW position turns radio off. 

Continuously variable control adjusts 
handset audio level. 


10 


MOD 

i 
: 


Pushbutton 
membrane switch 


Selects one of the display/control 
modes. 


11 


X-MODE 


26-pin connector 


Connects radio to peripheral devices 
such as COM SEC equipment, remote- 
controJ unit, test equipment and other 
radios for retransmit (J2). 


12 


AMT 


N-type RF 
connector 


Connects UHF antenna (J-3). 


13 


J1 


9-pin connector 
located on back 
panel 


Power input and control connector. 



186 




i 



Lesson purpose: To familiarize SEAL scout sniper in the operation of 
the AN/PRC-113. 



Objective: To familiarize the SEA1 scout sniper in the capabilities 
and operation of the AN/PRC-113 for future field use. 



LESSON OBJECTIVE: 

a. To familiarize the SEAL sniper in: 

1. Equipment setup. 

2. Equipment characteristics and capabilities and features. 

3. Radio set characteristics and capabilities. 

4 . Description and use of operators control and indicators . 

TRAINING OBJECTIVE: 

To train the SEAL scout sniper in the required skills needed to 
operate the AN/PRC-113 in a field environment. 



187 



flFQSMATIQff , The Afl/PRC-113 is a portable t two-band ( VHF/UHF ) rei sever 
transmitter. The radio set is designed for short range tactical ground to air and 
ground to ground communication. The radoio set can be used with CGMSEC TSEC/KY 57 
speech security equipment for secure voice communication. Depending on the terrain, 
ground to ground range varies from one to eight miles. Ground to Air range in smoe 
cases can exceed fifty miles. 



1, RADIO SET CHARACTERS I ST I C5 AffD CAPABILITIES, 



a. Portable. 



b. Two band - automatic band switching. 



3, 



(1) VHP (1360 channels). 



(2) UHF C7000 channels). 



2. lacti 



(1) Ground to ground 



(2) Ground to air. 



(1) Vhen used with attaching cable and C0KSEC/KY-57, 



4- Memory , 



% 
i 



(1) Will remember its last mnuslly 
when turned on from an off condition. 



selected frequence and all preset channels 



5, 



juiels. 



IBS 



(1) Up to 3 preset channels can be set Into radio nsemory before a mission, or 
radio can be operated in manal mode. 



6, 




(1) 2-eachp nan- rechargeable BA-5590/U lithium batteries 

(2) Or 2each, rechargeable BB-590- cadmium batteries. 



PRIME FEATURES. 



1- DF MDSE . 



(1) When DF ( direction finding ) 
transmitting a continuous ton C 1000Hz 
heard in the specker part of the hand: 



is lit on the display panel the radiom set 
(3 90% modulation K This tone will also be 
fit, 



15 



2. QHUSHUR. 



<1) When GD ( guard receiver > is lit on the display panel the radio set will 
automatically receive signals trainsnsitted on the guard channel frequency ( 
243.0GKH2:} and main frequency. 



3. SQL MODE. 



(1) Vhen SQL ( squelch ) is lit on the display panel the radio set will provide 
squelch to the incoming signal. The squelch threshold level is adjustable by the 
squelch control on the radio set front pannel. 



4. LFR flODE . 



(1) Vhen LPD < low power transmit ) is lit in the display pannel the radio set 
will transmit in the 2 watt mode, When LPD is not lit, the radio set will transmit in 
the 10 watt mode. 



5, 



189 



(I J PT < plain text ) will always be lit on the display pannel when the radio 
set is being operated in the non-secure voice made* 



k ftp id set cmipnrarrs. 



1. 



I- TKftSff SKITTER . 



(1) Contains controls, indicators and electronics to operate the 
tactical modes. 



set in VHF/UHF 



2. RATTF.BY CASE. 



(1> Houses the batteries. 



3. BATTERIES , 



(1) Supply, power for operation of the radio set. 



4, HATO SET . 



(1) Provides audio input/output for the radio set. 



5. UHP A mm A . 



<1) Used during UHF operations 



6. vhf AirmraA . 



(1) Used during VHF operations 



7. VHF/KHF AWTHtfHA . 



190 



(1) Adual nahd antenna for VHF/UHF operations. 



B, KY-57 BASEBAND CABLE A. 



(1) Connects between ST AUDIO connector and KY-57 unit during secure voice 
operations. 



EQUIPMENT DATA 



1. 




(1) 2 t or 10 watts. 



Y RATTOE . 



(1) Receiver/Transmitter 



<2) Guard receiver. 



VHP, 116.000 MHz to 149.975 Mz. 
UKF, 225.000 KHz to 399-975 KHz. 



C Fixed UHF Frequency > 243, 000 JtHz 



3. PRESET CHABURT.S 



(1) 8. 



4. WATERTIGHT . 



<i) To a depih of 36 inchs. 



5. 



16.7 LB 



o ■* 



OPERATING IHSTRIJCTTnire . 



191 



GENERAL. Controls, indicators and connectors used by the operator of the radio 
are discussed in three groups: 



set 



a. XEY BOARD. 

b. DISPLAY 

c. CONTROLS AND CONNECTORS. 



1. KEY 



(1) The keyboard is used to nsanually set operating frequencies-set mode of 
operation-set preset frequency channels. 



(2) Keyboard discription and function. 



a. KEY DISCRIPTTOH 



FOHCTIOH 



#1 



enters the number one 



4 
LPR 



enters the number two 



enters the number three 



enters the number 4 / controls switching between 10 watt 
output power. LPR will be lit on the DISPLAY when in the 
2-watt mode. LPS will JOT be lit when in the 10-watt 



5 
ACT 



5 enters the number 5. /ACT this f uction is not used in 
this configuration. 



6 
GD 



6 enters the number 6/ GD turns the RECEIVES OH or OFF. 
GD will be lit on the DISPLAY when the guard receiver is 
OH. GD is not lit when the guard receiver Is off. 



7 
SQL 



7 enters the number 7/ SQL turns radio squelch OH or OFF 
SQL is HOT lit when squalch is OFF. 



192 



6 
TOD 



8 enters the number 8/ TOD this function is not used in 
this configuration. 



9 
DF 



9 enters the lumber 9/ DF turns on the direction finding 
tone OB or OFF- DF will be lit on the DISPLAY when DF 
finding is on. Tone will be heard in the handset. Radio 
set is continuously transmitting when DF is lit, DF is 
not transmitting when not lit. 



CLR 
HVT 



CLE used to erase an error made while change ing 
operating frequency* /HVT this f net ion is not used in 
this configuration. 




PST 



enters the number 0./ PST Turns preset mode Off or OFF. 
Special mode character P will be lit on the DISPLAY when 
preset mode is on. P is not lit when preset mode is off- 



EBT 



The EST key is used at the begining or completion of 
operating proceedures to: 

Stop blinking display 
Relight battery saver 
Tune RT to new frequency stored in menory. 



DISPLAY, 



1- 



(1> A. blinking number on the display indicates an error made while entering anew 
frequency. 



a. To 
then enter 
number. 



blinking number , 
number and the 



CLR/HWT key to 
number will be 




( clear > error 
by the correct 



193 



2. SiSELAI. 



(1) After entring new frequency, all numbers will blink on and off. Press EBT 
key an KEYBOARD to set new frequency in radio. The display will stop blinking and 
display the enterd frequency. 



3. EATTJEEI. 



CD The DECIMAL POUT BLIIXIEG indicates low power. This will affect radio 
operation - replace batteries immediatealy if decijnal point is blinking. 



(1) DISPLAY - light will go out within 33 seconds after last function. To re- 
light the display without changing the frequency or operating mode, press the EBT 
key* The display will also re^light when any key is pressed. 



5. , 



(1) P (PKESET) - Pressing O/PST on keyboard will show on display if 
has been operating with a manual frequency. 



radio 



a. If the radio set 
show' P- and the last 




has been operating on a 
channel number after 





channel, the display will 
operation. 



EXAXPLE: The display shows - P - 5 , The radio was operating on preset channel 5. 



(2) LP (LOAD PKESET) After entering new frequency and while display is 
blinking, press O/PST key. 



a. The display will show LP- indicating that the load prest mode has been 
entered into the radio. 



b. Press any key 1 through 6, example: 5/ ACT Display will show LP-5, Press EHT 
key, the display will now show the new frequency entered into the radio memory at 
preset channel 5. 



c. The preset channel for the displayed frequency entered into the radio memory 
can now be recalled by pressing the O/PST key. The display will show P-5 , Radio 
will now receive and transmit on preset channel 5. 



194 



6, 



fl) DF { DIEECTIOI FIBDIJG ) When 9/DF fcey is 
display. 



pressed* DF will appear on the 



a. When DF is lit an the display, a continuous tone is being" transmitted by the 
radio set- This tone is also heard in the speaker part of the operator's handset* The 
radio set will transmit continuously untill 9/DF key is pressed again* (VAKRSIFG : 
JXJIOT DEPRESS 9/DF, KEY U5LESS AHTEHfA IS INSTALLED 01 RADIO SET). 



b. DF Transndte on C 1000 Ez © 90% Modulation >• 



<2) GD t GUABD KECEIVER > When 6/GD 
display* 



key is pressed! GD will appear on the 



a. Vhen GD is lit on the display, the radio set - guard receiver will 
automatically receive messages transmitted by another radio set on the guard channel 
(243-000 HHs >DHF frequency. 



<3) SQL i SQUELCH ) Vhen 7/SQL key is pressed, SQL will appear on the display. 



a- When SQL is lit on the display, the radio set squelch circuitry is activated* 
The squelch threshold level is adjustable by the squelch control on the radio set 
front panel. 



(4) LPS < LOV POVEK ) Vhen 4/LPR key is 
display. 



pressed, LPK will appear on the 



a. If the radio is not in the LPS mode or if the radio is already in the LPR 
nsode, LPR will disappear from the display. 



b. When LPK is lit on the display, the radio set transmitting power is two 



watts* 



c* Vhen the LPK is not lit on the display , the radio set transmitting power is 
10 watts. 



195 



(5> PT C FLAM TEXT ) PT will a 
t Is operating in the non-secure node. 



Iways be lit on the display when ever the radio 



OPERATING PROCEDURES 



MANUEL OPERATION: 



1. CONNECT HANDSET 

2. CONNECT ANTENNA (LONGE ANTENNA VHF, SHORT ANTENNA UHF) 

3. TDRI OK VOLUME 

4. PRESS ENT KEY TO ESTER FREQ. 

5. PUNCH IS FREQ VHF FREQ BAND 116.000HHz to 149.975MHz 

UHF FREQ BAND 225.000MHz to 399.975MHz 

6. PUSH EFT KEY TO LOAD FREQ 

"NOTE" THE PHC 113 IS READY FOR MANUEL OR ONE CHANNEL OPERATION 



PRESET OPERATION : 



"NOTE" 
OF 8. 



PRESET OPERATION IS USED VHEJT TWO OR MORE FREQUENCIES ARE USED, UP TO A TOTAL 



1. CONNECT HAND SET. 



2. CONNECT ANTENNA 



ANTENNA VHF, SHORT ANTENNA 



3. TURN ON VOLUME. 

4. DIM DISPLAY SVITCH ON. 

5. PRESS ENT KEY TO ESTER FREQ. 

6- PUNCH IN FREQ DISIRED, ( VHF OR UHF > 

7. PUSH PST KEY FOR PRESET CHANNELS 1 through 8, SREEN VILL SHOW P-l THROUGH 8 



8. PRESS ENT KEY TO LOAD PRESET CHANNEL. THIS HAY BE DONE FOR EIGHT DIFFERENT 
CHANNELS IN MEMORY. 



196 



9, TO EECWX A PEESHT CiiAlBfiL POSH PST KEY THE¥ THE CUABIEL 1UMBEH DH51EED , THE¥ 
BIT KEY. 




157 



NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE 



SCOUT SNIPER SCHOOL 



DATE 



PLANNING AND PREPARATION OF A SNIPER MISSION 

PURPOSE. The purpose of this lesson plan is to ensure that all Special War- 
fare scout snipers pocess the ability to plan, prepare and carry out a assigned 
sniper mission. 

INTRODUCTION : 

All aspects of planning and preparation of a sniper mission are contained 
in this lesson plan, from the sniper employment officer's responsibilities 
to the sniper team's responsibilities in planning, preparing, and executing 
a mission. A sniper patrol is always "tailored" for the mission it is to 

execute . 

1. DEFINITION. A sniper mission is a detachment of one or more sniper teams 
performing an assigned mission of engaging selected targets and targets of 
opportunity, and collecting and reporting information, or a combination of 
these, which contribute to the accomplishment of Naval Special Warfare's 
mission. 

2. SNIPER EMPLOYMENT OFFICER. The responsibilities of the employment officer 
(usually XO, OPs, Intelligence Officer, SEAL platoon commanders) are: 

a. Issuance of necessary orders to the sniper team leader. 

b . Coordination . 

c. Assignment of patrol missions of employment. 

d. Briefing team leaders. 

e. Debriefing team leaders. 

f . Advising the supported unit conmander on the best means to employ and 
utilize his sniper teams. 

g. The most important responsibility. 

(1) The sniper employment officer is directly responsible to the commanding 
officer of what every Special Warfare Team he is attached to for the operational 
efficiency of his sniper teams. 

NOTE: IT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE SNIPER EMPLOYMENT OFFICER TO FAMILIARIZE 
HIMSELF WITH THE SNIPER TEAM'S CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS. IT IS THE SNIPER 
TEAM LEADER'S RESPONSIBILITY TO ENSURE THE SNIPER EMPLOYMENT OFFICER IS WELL 
ADVISED ON THESE CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS. THE TEAM LEADER IS ALSO 
RESPONSIBLE FOR MAKING RECOMMENDATIONS AND TO GUIDE THE SNIPER EMPLOYMENT 
OFFICER ON THE CORRECT METHOD OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALL SNIPER TEAMS UNDER HIS 
CONTROL. 

199 



3. ISSUANCE OF NECESSARY ORDERS TO THE SNIPER TEAM LEADERS. If the sniper 
employment officer is not available, such as when sniper teams are attached 
away from their assigned command, the sniper team leader assumes the sniper 
employment officer's responsibilities. Necessary orders given to the sniper 
team leader are as follows: 

a. Orders providing the sniper team leader with the necessary information, 
instructions, guidance to enable the sniper team or teams to plan, prepare, 
and conduct the patrol mission. This information can be given orally and on 
an informal basis, or as a standard patrol operation order depending on the 
time available. 

b. The responsibility for all detailed planning, when practical, should be 
given to the sniper team leader. The mission should be described in only the 
most general terms by the sniper employment officer or the supported unit 
commander. The routes, targets, locations of firing positions, detailed 
mission planning, fire support planning and coordination should be the 
responsibility of the sniper team leader. When he has time, he should pre- 
pare and issue, to the observer, or if any other sniper team personnel are 
attached, a detailed patrol order to ensure that he has planned for every 
contingency. 

4,^ COORDINATION. Coordination is a continuing, joint effort by the sniper 
employment officer and sniper teams. The three general areas of coordination 
are between the: 



a. 



and 



b. Staff and sniper team leaders and units immediately affected by the patrol ' s 
operation. 

(1) The recommendations for sniper missions to be conducted and the sniper 
teams to be provided are submitted to the commanding officer for his approval. 



(2) The commander may, in his briefing to his 
employment officer or sniper team leader that 
overall "big picture. " 



staff, inform the sniper 
snipers may be needed in the 



(3) A sniper patrol is assigned one major mission. The essential tasks re- 
quired to accomplish the mission are assigned to both the sniper teams and 
elements of the supporting units. 

(4) Whether the sniper mission be a specific mission or a general mission, 
it must be clearly stated, thoroughly understood, and with the CAPABILITIES 

of the sniper team. 

5. SUPERVISION. Supervision is provided by the sniper employment officer 
in planning, preparation, and rehearsals, giving the sniper team leaders the 
benefit of their own training and experience. 

6. BRIEFING TEAM LEADERS. Once the commander has stated the need for snipers, 
the sniper employment officer, if available, must brief the sniper team(s) 

on the assigned mission. 



200 



7. RECEIVING 1HE ORDER. During the issuance of the order (briefing by the 
sniper employment officer, united commander or the supported unit commander) , 
the sniper team leader listens carefully to ensure that he clearly understands 
all information, instructions, and guidance. He takes notes for later planning 
After the briefing, he asks questions if points are not clearly understood 

or not covered. 

a. If supporting a SEAL platoon commander, it is the sniper team leader 1 s 
responsibility to advise the SEAL platoon commander of the proper and 
optional means of sniper employment to the best accomplish the mission. 

8. PATROL STEPS 

NOTE: WHEN THE SNIPER TEAM LEADER IS PLANNING AND ORGANIZING THE PATROL, 

HE SHOULD SOLICIT INPUT FROM THE OTHER SNIPER TEAM MEMBERS TO ENSURE THAT THE 

OPERATION IS WELL EXECUTED. 

THE SNIPER TEAM LEADER WHO DOES NOT SOLICIT INPUT FROM HIS FELLOW OPERATORS 
IN PLANNING AND ORGANIZING A SNIPER MISSION IS DOOMED TO FAILURE. 



STUDY THE MISSION 



*b. PLAN USE OF TIME 



c. STUDY TERRAIN AND SITUATION 



d. ORGANIZE THE PATROL 



e. SELECT MEN, EQUIPMENT, AND WEAPONS 



f . ISSUE WARNING ORDER 



COORDINATE (CONTINUOUS THROUGHOUT) 



h. MAKE RECONNAISSANCE 



i. COMPLETE DETAILED PLANS 

j. ISSUE PATROL ORDER 

k. SUPERVISE (AT ALL TIMES) , INSPECT, REHEARSE 

1. EXECUTE MISSION. 



9. ESTIMATE OF THE SITUATION. In the preparation of the sniper team leader's 
patrol order, the estimate of the situation is reflexive and continuous by 
the team leader, upon receipt of his order. Use the following acronym when 
estimating the situation as if effects the sniper team f s employment. 

M ISSION 

E NEMY 

T ERRAIN AND WEATHER 

T ROOPS AND FIRE SUPPORT. 

201 



a. STUDY THE MISSION. The sniper team leader carefully studies the mission. 
Through this, and the study of the terrain and situation, he identifies the 
essential tasks to be acccnplished in executing the mission. (example: Need 
sniper security support for SEAL squad, day ambush, site grid EJ87659387) . 

The blocking of routes of escape from a kill zone is an essential task which 
mast be accomplished to execute the mission. 

b. PLAN USE OF TIME. Combat situations seldom allow the sniper team leader 
as much time for planning and preparation as he would like. A well-planned 
sniper patrol should be planned 24 to 48 hours prior to the time of departure 
The sniper team leader should plan his time schedule around specific times 
(i.e., time of departure, time of attach, etc.) in the operation order. 

c. STUDY AND ANALYZE THE TERRAIN AND SITUATION. (Terrain) . The sniper team 
leader and his team study the terrain over which they will be moving, the 
friendly and enemy situations, and areas of operation. 



The sniper team makes a detailed study of maps and aerial photographs (if 
available) and, if time allows, make a sand table or terrain model of the "b 
over which they must pass, to aid in position and route selection. It must 
include the obiective area. 



(Situation) . The sniper team leader studies the strengths, locations, 
dispositions, and capabilities of the friendly forces and their fire support 
that may affect the mission's operation. 



rne sniper team leader should put himself in the mind of the enemy and come 
up with an educated guess as to where the enemy is likely to be and what he 
is likely to do before and after the long-range, percision sniper shot. He 
should ask himself question about the enemy: 



What has the enemy done in the past? 
What is he likely to do NOW? 

Hew will the enemy be moving (security activities; patrols, platoons, 
companies, etc?) 

What will the enemy be trying to accomplish? 

What avenues of approach will be utilized? 

How will terrain and weather affect his movement? 

When will the enemy move? 

What is his plan/tactics? 



202 



d. MAKE A TENTATIVE PLAN. The 
of action. The plan mav includ 



(a 



(b 
(c 



(d 



(e 



(f 



(g 

(h 



(i 



* 

{k 



(1 



Type of position. 

Location of position 

Type of employment 

Security backup needs (SEAL squad, etc.) 

Target location 

Passwords of frontline infantry units 

Time of departure 

Equipment needed 



Route seleuLiun 



Cctmnunications 



Call signs and frequencies 
Fire support. 



NOTE: 



A tentative plan is later developed into a detailed plan of action 



e. ORGANIZE THE PATROL AND BACKUP TEAM AND SELECT WEAPONS AND EQUIPMENT. 

If the sniper team is to be inserted as an extension of patrolling activities 
(by a SEAL security patrol) , the security patrol leader maintains operations) 
and logistic control over the sniper team until the sniper team is dropped 
off, and then resumes control when the snipers are picked up, on the return 
of the patrol. (The sniper team leader coordinates with the SEAL patrol 
leader /backup team on the special equipment necessary for the SEAL patrol 
members to carry, such as axes, picks, sandbags, ponchos, precut logs, etc., 
for hide construction, as it may be necessary for the SEAL platoon members 
to help in the preparation of the hide site. 

If the snipers should require immediate aid and extraction, the sniper patrol 
leader /SEAL backup team commander also coordinate the concept and plan of 
backup, the normal pickup procedures, and times, if applicable. Both the 
sniper team leader and the SEAL patrol leader /backup team must be thoroughly 
familiar with each other's missions, routes, and fire support plans. The 
SEAL patrol /backup leader must be able to terminate his patrol at any time 
in order to help extract the sniper team, if necessary. The two leaders must 
coordinate time schedules as wel 1 (i.e., time of rehearsals , time of issue 
patrol order, time of departure, etc.) . 

f . COORDINATE. It is the responsibility of the sniper team leader to coordinate 
with all friendly units. Examples of coordination which must be made are: 



203 



(a) Movement in friendly areas. Ccrnnanders must be informed of where and 
when the sniper team will be operating in their sector. Sniper teams must 
also have information on other friendly activities (patrols) in the area of 




(b) Departure and reentry of friendly areas (passwords) . Detailed 
coordination is required here. 

(c) Fire support plan and other friendly fires planned in the sniper's area 
of operations . 

(d) Movement of the sniper teams. 



i 



g. RECONNAISSANCE . A reconassance may be limited to just a detailed map/ 
or aerial photograph, or frcm the point of departure to the limit of sight. 
Briefings by units who have previusly operated in the area will also be of 

help. 

h. COMPLETE DETAILED PLAN. The sniper team leader ensures that nothing is 
left out from the predeparture of friendly lines to reentry of friendly lines. 

i. ISSUE PATROL ORDER. The way an order is issued is the way it will be 
received and understood. The order is issued confidently and in a loud and 
clear voice, continually referring to detailed sandtable of rough terrain 
sketch . 

j. SUPERVISE. The sniper team leader inspects his team and rehearses them. 

k. REHEARSE. Visual aids, such as terrain models, blackboards, and sandtables, 
are used to help ensure COMPLETE understanding by all personnel. If visual 
aids are not available, planned action are sketched out on paper, sand, dirt, 
or snow. 

An effective method for rehearsal is for the sniper team leader, team members, 
sniper employment officer, or the supported unit commanders concerned with 
the mission to talk the entire patrol through each phase of the mission, 
describing the actions to take place frcm thetime of departure to return. 
Terrain models should be used in this method of rehearsal. 

k. EXECUTE THE MISSION. The key to effective execution is detailed planning 
to cover every contingency during the previous patrol steps. What can go 
wrong, will go wrong. The only defense is a detailed planning. The sniper 
is always thinking, putting himself in the mind of the enemy, asking himself 
what would he do if he were in the enemy's shoes. 

L. FINAL CXDMVOENT. A sniper ability to accomplish an assigned mission and 
survive to make it back home, is in direct relation to his acquired sniper 
skills. This is a never ending process. The sniper who thinks he has 
acquired all the skills and knowledge relating to being a sniper, and does 
not seek out to improve his skills, or maintain those skills on a daily basis 
through formal military schooling and inhouse training, has limited himself 
and will be limited in his actions in the field. 



204 



PATROL ORDER for Sniper Missions 



Roll Call 



Orientation (with terrain model) 

"Hold questions until the end, take notes" 



I . SITUATION 



(As it applies to your mission) 



A. Enemy; 

1 ) Weather - r PAST, PRESENT, and PREDICTED (for the duration of the patrol) 
The following will be listed a minimum of three times: 



PMMT 
SUNRISE 
SUNSET 
XENT 



TEMPERATURE 
HUMIDITY (%) 



MOONRISE 

MOONSET 

MOON PHASE/% of ILLUM. PERCIPITATION/POG 

WIND ( di rect ion/ ve loci tyCLOUD COVER (% or 8ths) 



WEATHER AND TERRAIN ARE CONSIDERED FOR THEIR EFFECTS ON VISIBILITY AND 
TRAFFIC - ABILITY (MOVEMENT) 

After listing the weather elements, write a paragraph explaining how the 
weather will affect you and the enemy. Advantages and disadvantages for 
both. Information about the weather can be obtained from S-2, S-3, or 

aviation units. 

2) Terrain ; Write a paragraph on everything you know about the terrain 
in the patrol's area of operation. (NOOQA can be used as a basis for this) . 
Explain its effects on both you and the enemy. Advantages and disadvantages 
Don't just write about terrain features, include vegetation. Once again - 
visibility and traff icability. 

3) Enemy Situation ; Write everything you knew about the enemy and 
everything you can imagine the enemy might do. This will include enemy 
situaiton, abilities, and probable or predicted course of action. To aid 
in the arrival of this information use: 

P - Size 

A - Activities (PAST, PRESENT, PREDICTED) 

L - Location (s) of enemy positions and suspected enemy positions 
U - Unit (s) / Uniforms of the Enemy 
E - Equipment and weapons the enemy has 
E - enemy snipers/counter-snipers 
01 - Other Information about the enemy, such as Moral, Resupply 
Capabilities, NPs, OPs, etc. 

D - Defend 
R - Reinforce 
A - Attack 
W - Withdraw 
D - Delay 



205 



Information about the enemy and terrain can be gotten from the following 
sources: S-2, S-3, Maps, Aerial Photos, Aerial Recons, Visual Ground Re 
cons, Recon Units, other friendly patrols that have been in the area of 
operation. 

(don't get too carried away.) NASSP 

1) Higher - Mission of the NEZT higher unit {Actions and routes too, if 

applicable) 



206 



1 ) Higher - Mission and location of the next higher unit (actions and routes 
also, if applicable) If the mission comes from the SEO.SNCO/SrSnTmLdr the 
next higher unit is Sniper Section. If the mission ccmes from the SUC (Bn. 
CO. /Co. CO.) the next higher unit is Sniper Section if the whole section is 
attached to the supported unit; the next higher unit is that supported unit 
(Bn. or Co.) if the whole section is not attached or not assigned a mission as 
a whole. 



2) Adjacent 
of your area 
with such as 



- Mission and routes of units or patrols to the right and left 
of operation. This is any unit you may have incidental contact 
FOs, Recon Units, ANGLIOO, Army, etc. 



3) Supporting - List any unit that is in general and/or direct support of 

your patrol, such as: Fire Support - ARTY, NC7T, Mortars; Close Air Support; 

Helo Gunships; Security patrols; Trucks; MedEvac, Insert/Extract aircraft; 

etc. 

Explain in sentences form, then list on call targets as follows: 



TGT DESIGNATOR 



GRID 



DISCRIPTION 



REMARKS 



The FSCC assigns 
this. The FSCC 
will give you a 
block of TGTS (us- 
ually 3) . Coordin- 
ate with the PO 
of the Co. you are 
operating with, to 





Check the Bn.s fire 
support plan, seme 
of your on calls 
may already be 
covered . 



6 digit co- 
ordinate 



Where the TGT is, 
a terrain feature 
or identifying fea- 
ture, such as: HILL 
TOP, ROAD JUNCTION, 
BRIDGE, ETC. 



Examples: Time on 
Target, Prescheduled 
Fire, fuse type, 
type of round, 
whether the target 
is on a Check Point, 
ORD, the objective, 
etc. 






(Units list will be in conjunction with the map overlay.) 

Plan as many targets as you want or think you may need. You may not 
always need as many preplanned, on call targets (designators) as you want, but 
at least you will have planned for them and know where they are. 



4) Security - Missions or locations of 

■^ — "-^ F— ' I ■ Ph-n ■-■ ■ 1 iP " 

operation. This includes LPs, OPs, and 




elements in your area of 
patrols outside the FTBE. 



5) Patrols - The mission and routes of other friendly patrols operating 
anywhere in your area of operation. 

C . Attachments /Detachments : 

For a sniper patrol it will be NONE. Never will you have any detachments frcm 

your patrol, and 99% of the time you will not have any attachments to your 

patrol. 



207 



II . MISSION 

A brief and concise statement that should be written verbatim as received. 
It contains the 5 W's: Who, What, Where, When, and Why. The why does not 
have to be included or explained, but you can give the reason for your part 
in the overall plan. Example: SNTm 3, will move into a position to enable 
them to reduce key targets, on Bn Objective 'A* lcoated in the vicinity of 
356872 to support the Bns, attack on the objective. 

III. EXECUTION: 



A. Concept of the Operation: A general description or an outline 
the conduct of the whole patrol. Given in broad terms from Time of 
Departure to Debriefing. The concept of the operation is the scheme of 
maneuver . 



of 



B. Specific Tasks NOT IN THE OBJECTIVE AREA: 

Covers the actions from the TOD to moving into the ORP, and returning 
back to friendly lines after executing the mission. The ORP is not in the 
objective area, but as soon as you step out of the ORP you are in the objective 
area. Since you can only accomplish, execute, or receive one mission at a 
time, you will only have one objective area per mission, unless you receive a 
frag order. A fragmentory order is used to issue supplemental instructions 
or changes to a current operation order while the operation is in progress. 
A frag order can also be assigned to a patrol after they accomplish the 
assigned mission, but before they come back to the friendly area. 

These tasks will include, but are not limited to: 

1) Escape and Evasion Routes (not in the objective area) 

a) Should be easy to find, follow, and utilize. 

b) Can use cardinal directions or generalized escape aximuths. 

c) Example: Go due north to the second stream and follow that 
stream to friendly lines. 

d) Explain in detail your plan for utilizing your E&E contingency. 

2) Security and Acti ons at Co-ordination Points 

^ ——— « — ™ « ■— ■ ■ ^™ ■ ■■ i ^» ■ ■ ^^^^^^» i^^^m ^^^^^^^^^^^m^^^^^^ l _ amAm _ a _ aamM _ a _ aaaaa _ aaaa amM aa _ a . a | | — _ m ,, mamm m m mm m m , — p^ a 

a) Security Halts and Actions at Security Halts: 

(1) Hew Long - the team leader will designate how long he will 
stop for security halts here. 

Recommendations: Long security halt - 15 minutes 

Short security halt - 5 minutes 

(2) When - When will the team leader conduct long or short 
security halts. Coordination points, enroute. 

Where - Security halts should be conducted 

(a) Long Halt - before entering Rally Points, Check Points, 
ORP, Danger Areas 

(b) Long Halt - At or before leaving Rally Points, Check 
Points, the ORP 

(c) Long Halt - After crossing Danger Areas, breaking 
enemy contact 

(d) Long Halt - When ever the enemy is sighted or heard 

(e) Short Halts should be conducted frequently while enroute 
How - How will the security halts be conducted. Should be 

done in the prone position, feet touching - for signalling, with areas of 
responsibility for the point man from 9 o'clock to 4 o'clock and for the 
frcm 2 o'clock to 10 o'clock. 



208 




b) Check Point Grids and Actions at Check Points: 

(1) List check points by grid coordinate and number, letter, 
color, or word codes. 

(2) Explain in detail actions to take place before entering, at 
and before leaving. (Security halts, etc.) 

c) Location (s) of Link Up Point {s J and Actions for Link Up: 

(1) Grid location for link up {could be a check point of the 

ORP) 

(2) Actions or plans for link up (If applicable, for link ups 
for friendly patrols, security patrols, partisans, emergency or contingency 
link ups) . 

(3) Reconmended link up procedure: 

{a) Sniper team leader should be in charge of the link up 
(he is the one being picked up) . 

(b) Sniper team should be in the link up point prior to 
directing the patrol in. 

{c) Radio communication/voice contact must be maintained 
at all times. 

(d) Have the security (pick-up) patrol halt about 500 
meters from the link up point. 

(e) Once the security patrol has stopped, have them send 
2-4 men from the main patrol towards the link up point. 

(f) Have the men coming towards the link up point stop 
every 100 meters to monitor their progress. 

(g) Guide the men coming towards the link up point to with- 
in 50 to 25 meters of your link up position and have them stop. 

(h) At this time, the entire sniper team will get up and 
go to the men, to the guided back to the main body of the patrol (challenge 
and passwords.) 

d) Location (s) of Release Point (s) and Actions for Release: 

(1) A detailed plan for releasing from a security patrol 

(a) Sniper team can be released anywhere along the security 

patrols route. 

(b) Sniper team can be released at their ORP (the sniper 

team leader picks his own ORP) . 

(c) Sniper team can be released from the patrol after 
using the security patrol to help build the hide. 

(2) Grid location of where the team will be released (a check 

point can be used) . 



e) DO NOT INCLUDE RALLY POINTS (they are covered in III.C. Coord. 



Instr.) 



3) Fire Support - List and explain fire support outside of the objective 



area, such as pre-planned fires to cover routes. 



4) Other Tasks - One of the catch-alls. Covers things such as: 

(a) Resupply Plan (If not in the Objective Area) 

(b) Harbor Site (night pos) Location (s) and Actions at 

(1) Locating/ ID 

( 2 ) Recon 

(3) Movement - in and out 

( 4 ) Security 

(5) Actions with- in 

(6) Recommended procedure: 



209 



1. Harbor site should located off of the line of march and 
away from natural lines of drift. 

2. The best time to enter the harbor site is near EETCT, the 
best time to exit is near MTNT. {Harbor sites can be used in day also. 

3. Move to with- in 200 to 100 meters of the tentative harbor 
site and observe it for approximately 20 to 30 minutes. (This long security 
halt is also used to observe if you are being followed or to notice any other 
movement) . 

4. If the area is all secure, the team leader will leave his 
gear with the ATL and move into the harbor site (with a . 45) to do a recon 
and to confirm that it is a suitable position. 

5. Once the harbor site has been confirmed, the TL will go 
back to get his gear and lead the ATL into the harbor site. 

6. Once the team has moved into the site, one man will emplace 
the claymores and sensors if they are being used. 

7. Once the security of the site has been taken care of, the 
entire team will remain awake and alert for one hour. 

8. After the one hour security waiting period, consider such 
things as eating, cleaning weapons, head calls, sleeping, etc. Security in 
the harbor site msut be maintained if these things are to be done. (One 
man up, one man sleeps) . Depending on the situation, you may only want to 
sleep in the harbor site. 

9. Radio communications must be maintained. 

10. Approximately one hour before EMWT, the entire patrol should 
be awake for a long security waiting period of about 45 minutes. 

11. The same man who emplaced the claymores /sensors should 
retrieve them. 



(c) Observation Post(s) and Actions are OPs: 

(1) Movement Into/Out of: (from the re. 

(2) Good field of view (180 degrees if 

(3) Security 

(4) Watches /OP Log 

(d) NONE Other tasks simply could be none. 



C. Co-ordinating Instructions: 



This section must be very detailed. 



1. Time of Departure (TOD) /Time of Return (TOR) : List the times and 
dates. This is a commanders control measure. 

2. Primary and Alternate Routes: Routes both to the TFFP and back. 
All LDGS will be magnetic azimuths' and in meter distances. Start from the 
IRP to check point (this is a leg) to check point, etc. to the ORP and back 

A check point is a control measure. It lets the commander (in the 
rear) know your location while on patrol or how your patrol is progressing. 
Check points also aid the patrol in its navigation. 

The first check point should be located 400 to 600 meters from the 
FERA. (At this check point conduct a long security halt, then one last 
equipment check. Maintain security and change into ghillie suits if they 
are to be used on the patrol.) 

Check points can also be used as rally points, but are not as close 
to each other as rally points should be. (Check points should be approxi- 
mately 300 meters apart. Rally points should be approximately 100 meters 
apart.) 



210 



You do not have to physically pass through a check point. For example: 
A check point used could be a distinguishable hill top that is off the route 
but you can recognize it easily. ("Then call into the rear that you are at 
check point so and so. ) 

Plan as many alternate routes as you feel you may need and plan your 
routes to work together. Do not worry about making an alternate route 
from the FEBA to the first check point. The alternate route starts fran 
the first check point, do however make an alternate return route to the 

FEEA. 

List your routes. The following is an example: 
Primary Route: 

~ — ^— — —-■ — ■ ■ h ^^™— ■ — i 



From 899759 


(IRP) 




351° 


for 700 M 


to 


CKPT1 at 897766 


" CKPT 1 






280° 




300 M 


ii 


CKPT2 " 895766 


" CKPT 2 






294° 




300 M 


!■ 


CKPT3 " 892767 


" CKPT 3 


CORP) 




294° 




300 M 


■I 


OBJ " 889678 


" OBJ 






114° 




300 M 


■I 


ORP " 892767 


" QRP 






394° 




250 M 


H 


CKPT 4 " 893764 


" CKPT 4 






349° 




300 M 


ii 


CKPT5 " 894761 


" CKPT 5 






121° 




600 M 


H 


IRP " 899759 


Alternate Route: 


(* This 


example 


only has 


an alternate return route 



From QRP 

11 CKPT 6 
" CKPT 7 



63° for 850 M 
193° " 500 M 
194° " 750 M 



to 



ii 



M 



CKPT 6 at 899771 
CKPT 7 " 901766 
IRP " 899759 



The routes will be explained in addition to the map overlay. 



(1 
(2 

(3 
(4 

(5 
(6 

(7 
(8 
(9 

(10 

(11 
(12 



Principles to Follow for Selecting your route are: 

Avoid known or suspected enemy positions and obstacles. 
Seek terrain avoiding open areas and offering the most cover and:.con- 
cealment for daylight movement. 
Seek terrain permitting quiet movement at night. 

Take advantage of the more difficult terrain , such as swamps and dense 
woods. 

Avoid moving along exposed ridges. Move along the slope below the ridge 
to prevent silhouetting yourself. {Military Crest) 

Avoid using trails in guerri 11 a- infested areas and in the areas between 
forces who are in contact in conventional operations. 
Avoid moving laterally in front of friendly or enemy lines. 
Avoid areas which may be mined, boobytrapped, or covered by fire. 
Avoid villages, trails leading into villages, wells, and other places 
where you are likely to meet natives of the area. 

Study maps, aerial photos or sketches and memorize your route before 
you start your mission* 

Note distinctive features such as hills, streams, or swamps and their 
locations in relation to your route. 

If possible, "box" your route in with terrain features to aid in navi- 
gation . 



211 



(13) 

(14) 



3. 



A) 



1) 
2) 
3) 
points) 
4) 



In unexpected, difficult, or different terrain (and obstacles) such 
as D ungle and swanps, plan an offset (to a known terrain feature" 
Always plan at least one alternate route to use in case you c^not use 
your primary route. * <-^u*«- use 

Departure and Re-entry of Friendly Areas : 
ard Unit Co~ordinatinn 



:i fy yourself and 
; the size (and m. 
the time and r>l^< 



5) 
6) 



a) 

b) 
c) 
d) 



7) 
8) 



call 



r e the location of your assembly area and IRP 
n < . 1 i _f he ^ coimand er the area of operation for your patrol. 

?f ^ fOll0W ^ ng ^ou^tlon from the forward unit coriander; 
a) Terrain and vegetation in front of his sector 

Known or suspected enemy positions 

Recent enemy activities 

Friendly positions - OPs, I*Ps, Patrols 
Determine the forward unit's fire and barrier plan 
Determine what support the forward unit can furnish* 
a) Guides 

supportT niCati0n3 Plan betWeen the patro1 and the forward unit 

c) Navigational aids or signals 

d) Litter teams 

e) Fire support 

f ) Reactionary squads 
Exchange call signs and frequencies. 
Co-ordinate pyro plans, emergency signals, and codes. 
Confiim challeng(s) and password (s) 

(front line^s^Tpf?™^ ^ aamaadBr t "* ets ** «*" to his personn 
hi I ■ 2 ' LPs) of your Passage- (You may want to accompW him w 
he goes to inform the squad leaders, etc.) <*-«inpany mm w 

relieved.^^ ** ^ formit±on win be passed on if the forward unit is 



9) 

10) 

11) 
12) 



B) Principles for Departure 

Hit- J\ ^tablish an IRP. The IRP may be occupied or just planned for 
but all patrol members must know its location. p ' 

2) Security is maintained. 

witbcS .'SSE'tfiS S£T * not "« within *•» f riendl * - its «- 

or ~, v- 4) F1 ? al 00 -° rd±nati °n is "«de with the friendly unit ccratander to 
T^l ^„°^ ngeS haVe CXXXLIed sinre co-ordination wa^ last ma^Ti^hS 
Y "f , thfi . f lrSt ^^mation mde with a, friendl ^t ) 
5) The patrol members will be counted out 

a dj JV^5L:^n£ and^^r^t^f ^^a!^ 



212 



I 



C. Techniques for Departure of Friendly Units 

1) The patrol arrives at the forward unit and is met by a guide from 
that unit. The guide will lead the patrol to its IRP. 

2) No one, either singly or as a patrol, should move anywhere in the 
forward units area without a guide. 

3) The PL should then make a final co-ordination with the forward unit 
commander . Here he will learn of any changes that may have taken place 
since the last co-ordination and of any recent enemy activity that may 
affect the patrol. 

4) Prior to leaving the patrol the PL gives instructions (contingency 
plan) for what should be done while he is gone. These instructions state: 

a) Where he is going (and who he is taking with him) 

b) How long he will be gone 

c) What to do if he does not return 

d) Actions to be taken if there is enemy contact 

If all goes well, the PL shouldn't need to re- is sue these instructions 
when he leaves the patrol for final co-ordination. 

5) On returning from final co-ordination, the PL may issue a Frag 
Order to cover any changes. 

6) The Lstlmiqug fur dfc$Ki£Liiiy fiieiidiy tirutia depends on ttiu cmany 
situation. 

The cannon threats are: 

a) Ambush and chance contact 

b) Indirect fire 

c) STAND devices [surveillance, Target Acquisition, Night 
Observation) 

7) Have a security/ listening halt after the patrol has moved out of 
sight and sound of the forward unit (about 400 to 600 meters from the PTFV) . 
This is a short (long) halt to see if the enemy is in the area, and to 
accustom the patrol to the sights and sounds of the battlefield or the area 
of operation, before moving on. If a guide is used, have him wait at least 
ten minutes before going back to friendly lines, after the patrol leaves the 
first security halt. 

8) During a patrol, have frequent security/ listening halts to see that 
the patrol is not being followed and that there is no enemy in the area. 

D. Principles of Re-entry of Friendly Areas 

1) Ideally, re-entry should be made in the same sector you left from. 

2) Establish and occupy a re-entry rally point. 

3) Maintain security at the RRP and at the re-entry point. 

4) Contact the forward unit for permission to re-enter. 

5) Meet a guide at the re-entry point. Normally a pre-coordinated, 
forward of the front lines password will be used. Have a pre-co-ordinated 
alternate re-entry signal (pyro) . 

6) Patrol members will be counted in (to prevent infiltration, 
especially during reduced visibility.) 

E. Techniques for Re-entry of Friendly Units 

1) Itove the patrol into a rally point near the re-entry point. This 
RP should be near a prominent terrain feature where the PL can pinpoint 
his location, with respect to the re-entry point (especially at night.) 



213 



2) By radio, alert the forward unit that the patrol is ready to re- 
enter. Use a code word. The code word must be acknowledged by forward unit 
before the patrol reconno iters for the re-entry point. This will indicate 
that is a guide has been sent to the re-entry point and is waiting, and that 
security elements, LPs, and OPs have been notified. If you have no ccnmuni- 
cation, do not attempt to re-enter at night. Wait until daylight and use 
your alternate re-entry signal (pyro plan) . 

3) If the PL is certain of the re-entry point, he will move forward 
to make co-ordination. 

4) Avoid movement parallel to friendly barriers. If the re-entry 
point cannot be found, radio higher headquarters and move to another rally 
point to await daylight or further instructions on the means of re-entry. 

Do not stay in the same place from which radio transmission was made to avoid 

RDF. 

5) When the re-entry point has been located, the PL will go get the 
rest of the patrol and bring them to it. 

6) The guide leads the patrol through the barriers to a security 
position previously co-ordinated for debrief. 

7) Remember that the re-entry phase of the patrol is one of the most 

critical . 



4. Organization for Movement : 



will 



Who will be point, who will be rear during the entire patrol (whe: 
you switch positions any time during the patrol) . List the basic 
visibilities for each member of the oatrol durina movement. 



5 . Actio ns at Danger Areas: 
A) Five Types of Danger Areas : 



1) Linear Danger Areas - roads, trails, fire breaks, streams, rivers 
(enemy main line of defense) , etc. Both flanks of the patrol are exposed. 

2) Small Open Danger Areas - can be hit in one flank and/or the fron 
(bypass or offset) 

3) Large Open Danger Areas - can be hit from anywhere. (Bounds /Over 
Watch/Leap Frog) (bypass /of f set) ) 

4) Series of Danger Areas - similar to large open areas, especially 
when it's a series of linear danger areas. 

5) Danger Areas Within Danger Areas - example: linear danger area 
within a large open area. 

6) (The objective area is a danger area, but is not included in this 
section) . 



B) Explain hew the patrol will deal with each type of danger area listed 
above. (Hypothetical Situations) Then list the danger areas along your 
tentative route, including grid locations, and explain hew they will be 
dealt with. 

C) Principles : 

1) Avoid danger areas if possible. 

2) Plan to offset. RALS rule. 



214 



3) Anyone can designate a danger area, the patrol leader determines 
whether it is or not. 

4) The patrol should cross a danger area where observation is restricted, 
such as a curve in the road, where vegetation comes right up to both sides 

of the road, or a bend in a stream. 

5. Designate a near side rally point and a far side rendezvous point, 
(if they are not already designated in the patrol order.) The rally point 
on the near side will usually be the last rally point designated before en- 
countering the danger area. The rendezvous point on the far side will be a 
safe distance past the danger area near the route of march. 

6) Reoonnoiter the far side, either by a visual recon from the near 
side (security halt) or by sending the point man across to conduct a triangular 
recon. Do not cross until the recon is complete. Triangular recon: 



^Iv 7 



*V A*fc 




T*» 




7) If the patrol is split by enemy action while crossing, the man 
(men) on the far side should go to the rendezvous point and the man (men) 

on the near side should go to the last designated rally point. The man (men) 
at the last rally point should then attempt to cross the danger area at a 
different point, and meet the man (men) at the rendezvous point. If a con- 
siderable amount of time has elapsed (or a pre-deisgnated period of time) 
the patrol should meet at the ORP. (Utilize stealth) 

8) Remove evidence that the patrol has crossed, such as footprints. 



6. Actions on Enemy Contact: 



a) Avoid all enemy contact - that is not advantageous to the mission 
or is short of the objective area. 

b) If contact is made - break contact and either extract the team or 
continue with the mission. 

c) Immediate Action Drills - used when unintentional contact is made 
and there is no time for giving orders. They must be planned and well re- 
hearsed. Immediate Action Drills are: 

(1) Simple - situations calling for IA drills also call for aggressive/ 
violent execution. 

(2) Require Speed of Execution - As soon as any member of the patrol 
recognizes the need for it, he will initiate the appropriate inmediate action 
drill. Instantaneous action usually gives the best chance for success and 
survival . 

Inmediate Action Drills are used to: 



215 



f 



CD 
(2) 

maneuver 
(3) 



Counter an ambush. 

React to unintentional contact to c 

(Break Contact) 
Defend against low level air attack 



range when terrain restricts 



d) Immediate action should be planned for the following: 

1) Air Attack: 

a) seek concealment and cover (if you spot A/C and don't think A/C 
spotted you) 

b) lay down perpendicular to the direction of flight and return fire 
(if you know the A/C has spotted you and is caning in on a gun run) Lead 

helicopters and prop planes 50 yards, lead jets 200 yards 

c) If the aircraft passes you and is going to cone in for another run, 
immediately move and seek better cover and concealment. 

2) Chance Contact: 

a) Three types: 

(U You see them/ they don't see you. 

(2) They see you/you don't see them. 

(3) You see each other at the same time. 

b) Counter measures: 

(1) Freeze/Get dcwn/Cbncealment - Always be ready for contact. 

(2) Hasty Ambush - 45 degrees toward the enemy - plan not to 
initiate the ambush, if the ambush is intiated, iirmediately leave the area 
quickly before the enemy can deploy or re-organize. 

(3) Break contact - Fire and Maneuver - Clock System, Peel Offs, 
Receding Leep Frog. 

fa) One man fires rapid fire {not full automatic) with the M 
(b) The other man throws fraa/smoke/(WPl crr^n^^ 



-16 



3) Ambush: (With a 2 man sniper patrol, you 

a) Be alert and do not get into an ambush 

b) If you are in the kill zone - get out < 
fire and break contact. 

c) Immediate assault - not feasihiR. 



Return 



4) Indirect Fire: If the patrol comes under indirect fire (artillery, 
mortars, rockets, etc.), the PL will give direction (clock) and distance 
for the patrol to double-time out of the impact area. Do not seek cover 
in the impact area, as you will become pinned down. By continuing to move, 
the patrol is more difficult to hit. (Time permitting, send a SHELLREP) . 

5) Sniper Fire: The same goes for sniper fire as for indirect fire, GET 
OUT OF THE AREA. Run in an irratic manner. Once out of the area, call in 
a SPOT Report (CONTACT) and possiblv a fire mission. 



6) 



linefie Ids /Boobyt raps /NBC: (Could be considered Danger Areas) 

a) Avoid areas which may contain the above (danger areas) . 

b) Plan for actions in the event they can not be avoided. 



7) HAVE A PLAN FOR ANY CONCEIVABLE SITUATION. 



216 



r 



7) Rally Points and Actions at Rally Points: 

a) A rally point is a place where a patrol can: 

(1) Reassemble and reorganize if dispersed. 

(2) Temporarily halt to reorganize and prepare prior to action at 
the objective. 

(3) Temporarily halt to prepare for re-entry of friendly areas. 

b) A rally point should: 

(1) be easily recognizable. 

(2) have cover and concealment. 

(3) be defensible for a short period of time. 

(4) be away from natural lines of drift. 

c) A rally point is physically passed through or passed closely near 
by. 

A rendezvous point is not passed through or passed near by. (tentative) 

d) Four types of rally points: 

(1) Initial Rally Point (IRP) 

(2) Enroute Rally Point (ERP) 

(3) Objective Rally Point (ORP) 

(4) Reentry Rally Point (RRP) 

e) IRP - The IRP is located in a covered and concealed position behind 
friendly lines. It should be given as a eight digit grid. It is used for 

a reassembly area if the patrol has been split up. For example, if the 
friendly unit comes under enemy attack and the patrol is split up, the team 
will meet at the IRP and man it as a fighting position, or reassemble there 
after the all clear has been sounded. 

f ) ERP - ERPs may be planned for tentatively, prior to leaving on the 
mission {in the patrol order) , but are usually deisgnated while enroute by 
the PL using hand and arm signals. The distance between rally points largely 
depends on the situation, vegetation, and terrain. Usually rally points 

are designated every 100 meters. Check points may be used as rally points 
but this is not advised, as check points are generally farther apart than 
rally points should be (check points are usually about 300 meters apart) . 

g) ORP - The ORP is a point near the objective where a patrol makes 
its final preparations prior to actions at the objective. It can also be 
used to reassemble, reorganize, and disseminate information after the action 
at the objective. If possible, the tentative ORP should be out of sight, 
sound, and small arms range of the objective. For sniper missions the ORP 
should be 50 to 75 meters from the TFFP. A security halt must be conducted 
prior to moving in for a recon of the ORP. The recon is conducted prior to 
occupying the ORP to ensure it is free of enemy and is suitable. Avoid 
moving in front of the ORP. 

h) RRP - The RRP is the rally point located outside the range of small 
arms fire from the FEBA, approximately 500 meters. If possible, it should 
be located on or near a prominent (terrain) feature in respect to the re- 
entry point for ease of locating (the reentry point) . Radio contact is made 
from here to request permission for re-entry. 



217 



i) Acti ons at Rally Points: 

(1) If the patrol is dispursed between the FEBA and the first check 
point/rally point, they should return to the IRP. 

(2) If the patrol is dispersed while enroute, patrol members will 
reeassemble at the last designated rally point. Members will wait a pre- 
designated time at the RP {covered in the patrol order) before moving on to 
the previously designated RP and so on back to friendly lines. Before 
leaving the rally point for the next one, if the patrol has not been reunited, 
some sort of mark or signal will be left at the rally point. For example: 

a notch cut in a tree, two feet up from the base. 

(3) If enemy activity precludes the use of the last designated rally 
point, use the previously designated one. 

(4) If the patrol is reunited at a rally point, they should contact 
higher headquarters for instruction on whether to continue with the mission 
or return to the friendly area. 

8. Actions in the Objective Area: 

This section must be very detailed. This sub-paragraph covers every- 
thing the patrol does from leaving the ORP until returning to the ORP (or 
the first check point on the return route - if the ORP is not to be used 
again) . The following will be explained in detail: 

A) Special Instructions - when utilizing a security patro l 

In actuality the security patrol leader is in charge of the patrol until 
his patrol leaves the sniper team in the hide, BUT he should be very closely 

advised. 



B) Movement from the ORP 

(1) Security Halts 

{2) Order of March 

(3) Responsibilities and Specific Duties 

(4) Type of Movement (low) low crawl 

(5) Azimuth/Navigation Aids 

(6) E & E Plan 



: r 



C) Tentative Final Firing Position (TFFP) ID and Recon 



(1) Location and Size of the TFFP 

(2) How will it be identified 

(3) Who will do the recon 

(4) How will the recon be done 

(5) Where will the gear be staged 



10 15 meters in diameter 

optic gear/NODs 

the TL should do the recon 

a fan type recon should be 
conducted 

the TL does the recon with a .45 
pistol only, his weapon (M40A1) 
and gear will be left with the 



ATL who is security 

(6) Security (while the recon is conducted) 

(7) Actions if hit by the enemy 

(8) Plans for an alternate TFFP 



218 



D) Movement Into TFFP/FFP Confirmation 

(1) How will the sniper team move into the TFFP (low low crawl - 
enemy security patrols, LPs, OPs, etc.) 

(2) Security plan for moving in 

(3) Determine if this is what you are looking for, to accomplish 
your mission. (What are you looking for - field of view, cover/concealment 
etc.) Confirm it as your FFP. 

(4) Retain communications 

(5) Actions on enemy contact/E&E plan 

E) Hide Constru ction 

(1) What type of hide will be built 

(2) How will the hide be constructed 

(3) Who will construct and when 

(4) Security plan when building the hide (putting out claymores) 

(5) What materials will be used or needed for the hide construction 

(6) Possible covering fire to camouflage the noises of construction 

(7) Disposal of spoils - where will they go/how 

(8) Camouflage 

{9) Actions on enemy contact/E&E plan 



F) Actions in the Hide 



the middle, 



(1) Explain everything you will do in the hide: 

(a) Retain communication 

(b) Fill out range card/index targets/Sketch area 

(c) Open the observation log 

(d) Update the patrol log 

(e) Modify the fire support plan 

(f) Who will eat /when 

(g) Head calls 

(h) Security in the hide: 

i. watch/observation/ radio schedule 

ii. who will emplace/ retrieve claymores /sensors 

iii. do not put claymores outside of your field of view 

(2) Explain where gear will be located/ situated 

(a) where the gear will be - observer on the right, radio in 
(with two handsets) , he 11 -box with the team leader, etc. 

(b) a sketch or diagram will accompany the written explanation 

(3) Responsibilities and location of each man in the hide 

(4) Actions on enemy oontact/E&E plan 



G) FFP Departure 

(1) Who will leave first/order of march 

(2) Security plan for departing 

(3) Destruction and/or concealment of the hide 

(4) Azimuth and distance (return route) 

(5) Security halts 

(6) Actions on enemy contact/E&E plan 



219 



H) Special Instructions in the Objective Area such as: 



(1) Link Up Plan (if link up is 

(2) Counter Sniper Plans 

(3) Specific Instructions from 

(4) None 



to be made from the hide) 




I) Make a cont ingency plan for every possible situation. 

9 . Debriefing : When (time and date) , Where, Who will and should be 
and the format used for debriefing. 

10, Other Actions : Another catch-all. This will cover any actions not speci 
f really detailed elsewhere in the patrol order. For example: Helo-Gunship 
operations, helo/Aerial resupply, Actions for helo insert /ex tract, etc. 

11. Rehearsals and Inspections : 

A) Rehearsals: 



(1) Time(s) and location (s) 

(2) Who will be present 

(3) Order for rehearsals: 

(a) Actions in the objective area 

(b) Actions at danger areas 

(d) Departure and reentry of friendly lines 

(e) Organization for movement /Actions at security halts 
(Actions at check points/Actions at rally points) 

(f ) Actions in the hide 

(g) Other 
Rehearse day and night if possible 



in, if 



(4) 

(5) Rehearse in an area similiar to the area you will be operating 

e, 

(6) Rehearse in a covered and concealed area - assembly area/IRP. 




B) 





(1) 
(2) 

cies 

C3) 
(4) 
(5) 



Times and locations (initial and final) 

Allow enough time to replace/ survey defective gear or correct 



Sniper teams 

Run about 25 yards 

Inspect knowledge 



etc 



each others gear 
to check for noise from gear 
for mission too, fregs. /call-signs, routes, 



12, Essential Elements of Information (ESI) /Other Informati on Requirements (QFR) : 

" * ^ ■ B Bl B ■ B ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ B-BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB^BBBBBBBBBBB ■ ■ ■ H , , — |B r*-BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB« — ■ ■ ■ ■ M-M—M ■ B^ m B-BBTBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBIBIBB ■_■ B ■ ■ p 

(could be "none") 

A) EEI - critical items of information regarding the enemy and the 
environment needed by the commander, to relate with other available inform- 
ation, to assist him in reaching a (logical) decision, (observation, log, etc.) 

B) QfTR - collection of information on other capabilities, vulnerabilities, 
and characteristics of the area of operations, (which may affect the accomplish- 



220 



(5) 



If wounded is left behind: 

(a) make sure he is armed 

(b) conceal him 

(c) strip him of anything that 



identify him as a 



sniper 



(6) 



one with you 



(d) record an eight digit grid of his location 

Dead: 

(a) Med-evac/ Extract team - mission is unaccorrplishable 

(b) Leave behind for later recovery: 

(i) strip him of any evidence of being a sniper 
(ii) take with you, his equipment, gear, and weapons 
{iii) destroy anything you cannot take with you 
(iv) cover and bury the corpse 
(v) leave one dogtag with the corpse, take the other 

(vi) record an eight digit grid for later recovery, a 



ten digit grid would be better if possible 



f) 



Methods of Handling POWs /Captured Equipment and Documents 

(1) POWs 

{a) POWs will not be taken. (kill them-quietly) This will be 

written - as "According to SOP" as killing POWs is a war crime, 

(b) If POWs are to be taken either as an OIR or through a frag 
order - handle them according to the 5 S's: 

( 1 ) Search 

(2) Silence 
(3) 
(4) 
(5) 






back 



{2) Captured Equipment and Documents - options 

(a) Tag as to where and how equipment was obtained and bring it 

(b) Take photos of the equipment if you cannot bring it back 

(c) Destroy the equipment 

(d) Tag documents and bring them back 

(e) Photograph documents 



3) 



'lacement of Equipment at FFP 
As covered in paragraph III-C-8 



(can be discussed again, but does not 
have to be re-written) 



V. Command and Signa l 
A) Signal 

(1) Hand and Arm Signals 
illsutrations, and/or demonstrate, 
the following: 



a) 
b) 
c) 
d) 
e) 



- verbally explain in writing, show 
They will include, but are not limited to 



halt 


f) 


freeze 


g) 


get down 


h) 


move out 


i) 


long security halt 


j) 




k) 



danger area 


1) 


ORP 


m) 


rally point 


n) 


O.K. 


o) 


short sec. halt 


P) 


recon ( look) 


q) 



check point 
enemy 

pace count 
hasty ambush 
cannot observe 
eat 



221 



(2) Foot - Tap Signals - (can be used during 

(3) Pyrotechnics Plan - how many and what colors 
star cluster) , flares, or smokes will be used for what 

(4) Flashlight Signals - with colored lenses and 
scopes signals - if they are to be used. Meta-scopes 
anymore because they are infra-red and the Soviets are 
red detection. ) 

(5) What is the forward unit's FPF signal - both 

(6) Radio Communications - 

(a) List all the frequencies and call signs 
patrol. These can be obtained fran the CECI. Example 



DATE/UNIT 



CALL SIGN 



halts) 
of pop-ups (parachute, 
signal. 

taped cones. (Meta- 
are not recommended 
very big on infra- 
primary and alternate. 

for the duration of the 
as follows: 

FREQUENCIES 



: 



SITREP 
PGSREP 
SPOTREP 

SHELLREP 



Primary 



Alternate 



i 

Primary i Alternate 
1 



i 
i 
i 

i 
j 
i 

(b) List the types and times for required reports to be sent 
Example: To include but not limited to: 

- every hour on the hour 

- at each check point 

- after breaking enemy oontact/upon sighting enemy 




Required reports are a commanders control measure and are 
usually given in the commanders operation order. 

(c) Will Dry-Ad/Pel e (shackle sheets) be used - ADSIR 
Authenticate - Down; Shackle - Right 

(d) Brevity Codes/Code Words - used on the radio 
Examples (not limited only to these) : 

On the Move - Sleeping 

At the ORP - Fishing 

At the FFP - Cold Steel 

At (a) check Point - A different type of beer can be used 

for or with the check point number or letter 
Alternate Route - Red River 

(e) Challenge and Passwords - for the duration of the patrol. 
They usually change every 12 hours (CEOI) * 

(1) Front line units (Dep/Reen) 

(2) Between other patrols operating in your AO (inter) 

(3) For link ups 

(4) With- in your own patrol (intra) 

(5) Running Password - If you are hit and have to run for 
the friendly lines and don't have time for, or cannot 
get proper ocmmunications/procedure, or for use in E&E 

(6) The challange and passwords should be used in a 
sentence (except the running password) . 



222 



E) Carmand 

1) Chain of Conmand - not necessary, only 2 of you. 

2) Location of PL/APL during halts, etc. - not necessary for the sniper 
team. 

3) Location of the dispatching commander (grid) . This will be the SUC, 
SBO, etc. (GOC/CP) . Include his frequency and call signs. 



223 



-i 



merit of (a) /the mission) . For example, the sniper team may be assigned an 
additional duty to the mission, of conducting a route recon (to the objective) 
either on their way to or from the objective. Or of conducting an "LZ" recon. 

13. Annexes : (ranger Hand Book) These are explanations that may be necessary 
to make the plan more complete. They can be used to promote clarity and 
understanding areas not covered elsewhere in the order. They follow the 
normal five paragraph order format and usually are accompanied by a diagram 
or illustration. They can be used for such things as: 

a) Aerial movements 

b) Truck movements 

c) Aerial resupply 

d) Stream crossings 

e) Patrol bases (how SnTm will 

f ) Link Ups 

g) Small boat movements (IBS) 
h) Escape and Evasion 



support the PB) 



IV. Adminis tr at ion and Logistics 

■ ■ "-^ 1 ■ ■ r^ ■ ■ ■ 



A) 
B) 

C) 



BEANS, BULLETS, BANDAGES, AND BADGUYS 

Part can be copied from the warning order (or " refer to warning 
order") 

To include, but not limited to the following: 
a) Rations and Water 



b) 



patrol 



(1) 
(2) 
(3) 

(4) 
Arms 



How much will be taken 

When and where it will be drawn 

Who will draw it 

When and how you will eat 

and Ammo 



(1) Who will take what 

(2) When and where it will be drawn 

(3) Who will draw it 

(4) When and where will test firing be conducted 

c) Uniform and Equipment (Common to All ) 

(1) What will be taken 

(2) How it will be worn 

d) Special Equipment 



(1) Who will take what 

(2) How it will be carried 

(3) When and where it will be drawn 

(4) Who will draw it 

(5) When and where will op-checking be conducted 
e) Method of Handling Wounded/Dead (f riendly) 

(1) First-aid procedures 

(2) Med-Evac procedures/possibilities 

(3) Can walking wounded continue with the mission? 

(4) If wounded is not in danger of death: 

(a) carry him back 

(b) leave behind to go get a friendly security /recovery 

(c) Med-Evac?????? 



224 



NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE 



SCOUT/SNIPER SCHOOL 



DATE 



MISSION PLANNING 

SAMPLE OPERATION ORDER 

1 . SITUATIONS 

a. Enemy Forces. 

(1) Weather- The weather has been hot (90-100°) and himid (80%) 
for the past week and is expected to continue so for the next week. No 
rain is predicted during the next 72-hour period. There is a full moon, 
and visibility will be good. The heat, humidity, and visibility will affect 
our movonent. Here is the astronomical data for 20 July 1986. 

BMNT 0520 Moonrise 1730 Temperature 92° 
EENT 2100 Moonset 0650 Humidity 63% 
Sunrise 0630 Moon phase Full Precipitation 
Sunset 2020 Wind 3-6 NE Cloud cover 10% 

[2} Terrain. The area is full of step fingers and draws, with 
thick vegetation in the draws near the streams. There exists numerous roads 
and trails that are not shown on the map. Streams are generally 3 to 4 
feet deep and 6 to 10 feet wide r requiring no special equipment for crossing. 

(3) Enemy. 

(a) There is a battalion- si zed enemy unit in the area, but 
they have been operating in small (8-10 man) groups, with the capability of 
massing to company size within 24 hours. 

(b) Enemy patrols have been reconnoitering our position, 
possibly indicating offensive action in the near future. 

(c) Enemy activity has been spotted in the northwestern section 
of our AD, with the most recent sighting taking place within 1,000 meters of 
our lines. 

(d) S2 has determined that the enemy is frcm the 3d Naval 
Infantry Regiment. The average soldier in this unit is a hard and willing 
worker and is able to survive and iniprovise under a wide variety of conditions 
He is in excellent physical condition and can bear extraordinary hardship. 

He has a strong sense of obedience and will attempt to carry out his mission 
regardless of obstacles or consequences. 

(e) There have been contacts within the last 96 hours. All 
have come during the afternoon hours, with the last coming at 1900 hours last 
night . 

225 



(f ) The 3d Regiment is armed with modern Ccmmunist bloc 
weapons and has a mortar and light artillery capability. Enemy uniforms are 
camouflaged and resemble our own; however, they do not wear body armor. Their 
sniper /antisniper capability is undetermined. 

b. Friendly Forces. 

U) A Co remains in a static linear defensive position with 3d 
Platoon in reserve. 

(2) 1st Platoon is on the left flank, and 2d Platoon is on the 
right flank. A Co is bounded on the left by B Co, with C Co to our rear in 
reserve . 




in 



(3) We have one 8l-nm mortar section in direct support and G 
general support of the mission with the following targets plotted: 



TOT NO. 


LOCATION 


AW1001 


897766 


AW1002 


895766 


AW1003 


892777 


AW1001 


899799 


AB1002 


901790 


AB1003 


889791 



AW1004 
AW1005 
AW1004 



891808 
901805 
891791 



DESCRIPTION 

Hi 11 /Checkpoint #1 

Hi 11 /Checkpoint #2 

Finger/ORP 

Hi 11 /OBJ 

Hi 1 1 /Checkpoint #3 

Finger /Checkpoint #4 

(Alternate route) 

Hi 11 /Checkpoint #5 
Hi 11 /Checkpoint #6 
Draw/Checkpoint #7 



REMARKS 



HE 


(81) 


HE 


(81) 


HE, 


WP (81) 


HE, 


VT (155) 


HE, 


HC (155) 


HE, 


HC (155) 


HE 


(81) 


HE, 


WP (81) 


HE, 


VT (155) 



of operations 



(4) There will no other patrols operating in the company area 



c. Attachments and Detachments. None. 



2 . MISSION 

Sniper team (#1) will depart at 1900 hours 20 July 1986 and proceed 
the vicinity of grid 892777 to establish an OP. Collect and report 
relative information and modify A Co fire support plan accordingly. 

3 . EXECUTION 



to 



all 



a. Concept of the Operation of the Sniper Team in the Objective Area, 
This is a brief statement of the "whole picture, " or an outline of the con- 
duct of the mission, followed by a detailed report of all the actions the 
sniper team will accomplish from the ORP to the FFP and back to the ORP, to 
include movement, routes, security halts, pacing, selection of FFP, constru- 
ction of FFP, placement and operation of logistics, individuals 1 duties in 
the objective area, objective location, identification and engagement, re- 

, iirmediate action drills, contingency plans and actions, air support/ 

support employment, and a host of others. 




226 



b. Actions of the Sniper Team Not in the Objective Area. A detailed 
report of all tasks or actions accomplished outside the objective area, i.e., 
from the IRP to the OKP (including action in the ORP) and back to the IRP. 
Actions may be similar to 3a, but in 3b it is necessary to include departure/ 
reentry procedures, actions at rallying points, etc. 

c. Coordinating Instructions. Depending on the requirements of the 
instructional situation, the student may be required to duplicate information 
previously noted in 3a or 3b. If not previously written, then all required 
information of the following matter will always be covered in detail: 

infiltration plan (in annex ) ; linkup plan, annex .; TOD; TOR; primary 

and alternate routes; departure and reentry of friendly lines; organization 
for movement; action on enemy contact; rallying points and actions at rallying 
points; actions in the objective area; debriefing; other actions; rehearsals; 
and inspections. 



{ Coordinating 



(1) Infiltration plan. Annex A. 

(2) Linkup plan. Annex B. 

(3) TOD. 2100/9 Jun 86. 
TOR. 06—/12 Jun 86. 

(4) Our primary route will be as follows: 



From 899759 (IRP) 


351° 


for 


200 


Checkpoint #1 


280° 


for 


300 


Checkpoint #2 


294° 


for 


300 


OBJ 


114° 


for 


300 


ORP 


349° 


for 


250 


Checkpoint #4 


349° 


for 


300 


Checkpoint #5 


121° 


for 


600 



m to Checkpoint #1 at 897766 

m to Checkpoint #2 at 895766 

m to Checkpoint #3 OBJ at 889768 

m to ORP at 892767 

m to Checkpoint #4 at 893764 

m to Checkpoint #5 at 894761 

m to IRP at 899759 



Our alternate route for return from the objective is as follows: 



From ORP 
Checkpoint #6 
Checkpoint #7 



63° for 800 m to Checkpoint #6 at 899771 
193° for 500 m to Checkpoint #7 at 901766 
194° for 750 m to IRP 



All azimuths given are magnetic. 

(5) Departure and reentry of friendly areas, 
our assembly area to a covered and concealed position 
This will be our IRP, at grid 899759. We will do one 
inspection and ccmnunication check. 



We will move out frcm 
short of the FEBA. 
last personal gear 



I will move forward and make final liaison with the 2d Platoon 
leader. I will request the latest information on the enemy, the terrain to 
the front, known obstacles, and locations of OPs/LPs. I will check to 
ensure there has been no change in cccrmunication procedures or the fire support 
the unit can provide. Additionally, I will confirm the challenge/password 
and determine if the same men frcm 2d Platoon will be manning the position 



227 



upon our return. If not, I will ensure that they notify their relief of our 
expected return. I will pick up the guide they have provided to take us 
through the wire and minefield and then verbally call for you to move up. 
The patrol will then depart through the 1st Squad, 2d Platoon sector in single 
file, with the guide at the point, you second, and myself in the rear. The 1st 
Squad leader will count us out and give me the count as I pass his position. 
When we reach 200 meters forward of friendly lines on a magnetic azimuth of 
351°, we will stop and execute a long security halt. After determining that 
all is secure, sniper patrol 1 will continue on a magnetic azimuth of 351° 
with you at point and myself in the rear. The 2d Platoon's guide will wait 
10 minutes after our departure before returning to friendly lines. 



For reentry/ we will halt approximately 500 meters short of 
friendly lines while I contact 2d Platoon for permission to reenter. I'll 
report our position and wait for the "OK." While waiting we will maintain 
360° security, with emphasis to our rear 180°, which will be your responsi- 
bility. 2d Platoon will then contact all OPs/LPs, informing them of our 
return. Upon 2d Platoon's permission we will move forward to a position 200 
meters outside of friendly lines, and I will again contact 2d Platoon, inform 
them we are within local security, and await final permission to reenter. 

When we receive the OK, we will move forward, me first, you 
second, and make contact with forward friendly lines, utilizing the 
appropriate challenge /password procedure. I will enter friendly lines first 
and count you in. The alternate reentry signal is the firing of a double 
white star cluster before moving forward. 



(6) Organization for movement, 
(with the exception of the noted reentry 
gating and providing frontal security, 
security to the rear. 



At all times during the patrol 
procedures) you will lead, navi- 
I will follow, pacing and providing 



(7) Actions at danger areas. We will avoid danger areas if possible. 
Small open areas will be negotiated as the situation dictates. I will 
determine the method at that time. (At this time the patrol leader would 
mention any known danger areas, their location, and method of avoidance or 
navigation . ) 

(8) Actions on enemy contact. Our patrol is offensive in nature; 
however, we will avoid all enemy contact in situations not advantageous to 
us or short of our objective area. 

(a) Chance contact. If we see the enemy and he has not seen 
us, we will quickly assume a concealed position and prepare ourselves for 
contact but remain silent and allow the enemy to pass. If we are seen by 

the enemy, you will engage them with rapid fire (not full-auto) with the M-16, 
and I will engage them with fragmentation and smoke grenades. Under cover 
of smoke, I will yell "MOVE," followed by a direction. We will then move 
to our last rallying point or checkpoint, whichever is closest. 

(b) Break contact. Our withdrawal will be by the clock method 
or fire and maneuver, depending on the effectiveness of fire. Whenever 
possible, our withdrawal will be covered by smoke and/or fire support. 



i 

t 
I 



228 



(c) Air attack- We will move laterally out of the aircraft's 
direction of approach and place our bodies perpendicular to the aircraft's 
direction. If it returns, or more than one aircraft attacks, we will dis- 
perse and see adequate cover. 

(d) Arti 1 lery /mortar attack. We will disperse and seek adequate 
cover, attempting to determine the direction of hostile fire and the size of 

ordnance. 

(9) Rallying points and actions at rallying points. The IRP will be 
at 902757. I plan to use checkpoints as RPs (en route) and will designate 
them by hand and arm signals. In the event we are dispersed by incoming fire 
while behind friendly lines, we will reorganize at the IRP 10 minutes after 
the all clear is sounded. If we are dispersed after leaving friendly lines 
but before the first RP f we will return to the IRP. Should the patrol beccme 
dispersed for any reason, or should an individual beccme lost, we will return 
to the last designated RP and wait 45 minutes. If I have not returned in 
that period, call HQ and request instructions. If communication is not 
established, use 220° as an escape azimuth to the hard-surfaced road and 
return to friendly lines. Utilize challenge /password procedures at all times 
at rallying points. If either man departs the rallying point alone, he must 
leave a knife mark two feet up on a tree indicating he was there. 

(10) Actions in the objective area. Same as 3a. 

(11) Debriefing. The patrol will be debriefed immediately upon 
return at S2, utilizing the NATO patrol report form. The S2, the S3, and 
the commander will be present. 

(12) Other actions. (here you would cover any actions not specifically 
detailed elsewhere in the patrol order — resupply, emergency extraction by 

he 1 icopter , etc . ) 

(13) Rehearsals and inspections. Rehearsals will be in the following 
order: actions in the objective area, actions on enemy contact, departure 
and reentry of friendly areas, and organization for movement, to include long 
and short security halts. The initial inspection will be conducted inmediately 
after the patrol order, followed by rehearsals, surveying of any defective 
gear, chow, and then the final inspection. All rehearsals and inspections 
will be conducted in the assembly area. 

4. ADMINISTRATION AND IOGISTTCS 

a. Rations. Wo change frcm WO. 

b. Arms and Ammo. No change from WO. 

c. Uniforms and Equipment. No change from WO. 

d. Method of Handling Wounded and PWs. Wounded will continue on the 
mission, if possible, after first aid treatment. If it is impossible for them 
to continue, the team leader will determine if they should be MEDEVAC'ed. 

The dead will be buried and noted for future pickup. PWs will be handled 
according to sniper SOP. 



229 



e. Placement of Equipment at FFP. No change from para 3a. 

%. COMMAND AND SIGNAL 



■ 



a. Signals. 

(1) Signals in the objective 
friendly lines and movement will be 
rehearse. 



area during 

discussed earl 




and reentry of 
and as we will 



We will use the following arm and hand signals: 



Halt 


Long security halt 


Freeze 


Danger area 


Get up 


ORP 


Move out 


OK 


Enemy 


Rallying point 



Short security 
Reoon (look) 
Checkpoint 
Pace count 



halt 



NOTE: A picture of each signal should be given to each individual. 



[2) Communications with higher headquarters. 



(a) The following call signs and 
the duration of the patrol: 




will be good for 



UNIT 

™ ■ ^ B-H ■— 

Company 
2d Platoon 
1st Platoon 
ST #1 
FDC 81 
FDC 155 
TAC AIR 



CALL SIGN 


FREQ P 


FREQ A 


AB6 


30.15 


41.75 


AF7 


30.15 


41.75 


PC3 


30.15 


41.75 


HB1 


30.15 


41.75 


API 


32.45 


48.50 


HE6A 


34.65 


44.50 


LTA4 


39.50 


49.65 



(b) The following reports are required 

SITREP — every hour on the hour. 
POSREP — at each checkpoint. 
SPOTREP — after enanv contact. 



■ 



(c) Additionally, departure and 
be reported to A co. We will use the following 

BLUE STREAM at CRP 
COLD STEEL alternate frequency 
RED RIVER alternate route 
JADE BOY at FFP 




of friendly lines will 
words: 



(d) The challenge and password are as follows: 



The challenge will be 
The password will be 



SEPTEMBER 
HEAVY LADY 



230 



••^^^^^^^^^^m 



b. Command. 

(1) Chain of command. No change from WO. 

(2) Location of leaders. During movement I will bebehind you. A 
Co. commander will remain with A Co HQ. 



231 



POST-MISSION WONPERMISSIVE DEBRIEFING FORMAT 



1. ADflltrrSTATION: 



a. Same of debriefer. 



b, flame of individual being debreifed 



ORGANIZATION: 



a. COMPOST I DN OF THE ELEMEMT. 



b. Postion within the element. 



c. Other menbers of the element 



3, MISSION: 



a. Primary mission assigned to the element. 



b. Additional mission. 



4. EEI/OIR/ PIR < PRIMARY INTEL HEQUIRKEBTS) 



5. FKIENDLY FORCES: 



a. K. I. A. 



b. V.I. A. 



c. P.O. V. 



d. MISSING 



6. SUHMASY OF ACTIVITIES: 



A chronological, detailed statement emphasizing time, movement 
activities, and observations within the area of operations. 



232 



a, Infiltration (time stud place) 



b. Movensent (direction and distance) 



c. Observation of human activity 



<1) Where were people seen. 

(2) Vhen. 

(3) Number. 

(4) Civilian or mil tar y« 

(5) Ethnic group, language, etc. 

(6) Clothing (color, candistion), Footgear, headgear, trouser, shirts. 

(7) Equipment (color, size, shape, condition) . 

(8) Snail arms (condition and type) 

(9) Vitat were the people doing? 

(10) If miltary, well-discipliaed or para-miitary. 

(11) Apparent physical condition. 



dn Observation of structures: 



( 1 ) Vhere 1 oca ted . 



(2) How inany. 

(3) Shape, size, purpose. 



(4) Construction material 



(5) Markings. 



(6) Contents of structure. 



(7) Estimate of last use, 



(B) Indications of family occupancy. 

<9) Animals or animals pen near structures. 

(10) Crops close to structure. 



233 



e. Oservatinn of animals, 



(1) Vliat type + haw many. 



<2> Wild or tame. 



(3) Condition. 



(4) Drayage animals. 



f. Actions at the abjective 



g. Exf iltration: 



7. EtfEKY FORCES: 



a. Enemy encounteerd during infiltration (SALUTES) . 

SIZE, ACTIONS, LQCTIOfl, UNIFORM, TIKE, EQU I PKEHT, S3FIPERS. 



b. Enemy enccutered during movement to the objective (SALUTES) 



c. Enemy abjective. 



(1) • Guard force (SALUTES) 



(2) Emplacements 



(a) SALUTES. 



(b) Fields of view. 



(c) Fields of fire. 



(d) Stage of development, 

(e) Guards /personnel at each 



(3) Automatic weapons 



<a> SALUTES. 



(b) Fields of fire. 



(c) Amount of ammunittion. 



234 



Cd 



(4 



<a 



(b 



(c 



(d 



(e 



(5 



(6 



<7 



<a 



Cb 



Cc 



<8 



<a 



<b 



<c 



(9 



(a 



(b 



(a 



<b 



(c 



Type of weapons. 



Crew served weapons: 



SALUTES. 



Fields of view. 



fields of fire. 



Direction of weapons orientation. 



Amount of ammuntion. 



Apparent state of readiness. 



Missing periods and procedures 



Night vision equipment 



Nu mbe r . 



Individual. 



Attached to weapons. 



Resupply procedures 



When. 



How, 



From where . 



OPs & LPs 



SALUTES . 



Commu ni cat i ons procedures 



<10) Early warning devices: 



Location, 



Type. 



How activated 



235 



(11) Communi cat ions equipment: 
(a) Type* 



(b) Location, 



<12> Use of aviation support 



(a) Rotary wing (SALUTES), 



■ 

^ 



Cb) Fixed wing (SALUTE). 



(c> Fast movers (SALUTE). 



(d> Ar:mament b 



(13) Enemy tactics: 

<a> Vhat was the enemv reaction to them? 

<h> How did the enemy indicate that he was aware of the teams presence in the area? 

(c) Vas the team followed? - By how large of force? 

(e) Was the team surrounded? 

(f ) Did the enemy attempt to avoid contact? 

(g) What reaction did the enemy have when he was attacked? 

(h) 'Vhat action did the enemy have when helicopters arrived to remove the team or 
insert a large force? 

(i) Vhat signal were used? 

{ j ) Discipline of eneny force? 

(k) Indications of enemy training? 



(14) Kines: 



<a> Exact location. 



(b) Details of placement 



(C) lumber of mines. 



(e> Detonation of mines and results if known 



8, TE3BAI5T: 



236 



a, Landforra, 



b. Vegetation 



(1) Lowland. 



(2) Ridge and mountains sides, 

(3) High ground, ridge tops and hilltops 



c. Rivers and streams: 



(1) Location, 



(2) ¥idth. 



(3) Depth. 



(4> Current (speed and direction). 

(5) Slope and bank. 

(6) Composition of soil an bottom and banks, 

(7) Dimensions of dry bed< 

(S) Are large streams navigable? 



d. Trails ( Identify on map). 



(1) Direction and lection. 



(2) Vidth, 



(3) Estimate of use ( man or animals, footprints describe prints; > 
<a) Barefoot, 

Cb) Cleated soles. 

Cc) Hard soles. 

(d) Direction of movement. 

(4) Overhead canopy. 

(5) Undergrowth along sides of trail, 

(6) Direction signs, symbols f signals found along the route. 



237 



(7) Surface charact gristles ( hard pacied or soft earth t 
brush growth, etc. 



vegetation; light 



e . fioads : 



(1> Direction 



(2) Width. 



(3) Surface material. 



(4) Indications of movement. 



(5) 



Maintance of road {craters repaired, etc.). 



(6) Description of vehicais tracks. 

(7) Chokepoints. 

<6) Type vehicles if observed. 



f. Bridges: 

<1) Type construction and description 

(2) Capacity, 



(3) dumber of lanes. 



(4) Vidth and length. 



g. Soil: 

(1) Appearance {color) . 

(2) Hardness (dry, wet, muddy, very muddy) 

(3) Standing water. 



h. Note deviation from map of landforms f treelines, waterways, trails, etc 



9. LZ's, PZ*s + DZ's: 



a. Location. 



b. Reference point. 

c. Description and demensian. 



s 



I i 



238 



d. Open quadrant. 



e. Recommended track 



f. Obstacles. 



G, Additional information* 



10. Veather: 



a Visibility- 



b. Cloud cover. 



c. Precipitation, 

d. Ground fog- 



e, Vinds. 



f. Temperatures. 

g, Illumi nation- 
fa. Effect on personnel 



II. Communications: 

a. Vas jamming encountered? 

b. Problems in contacting air-relay. 

c. Difficulties with radio set, 

d. Indication of enemy RDF capability, 

e. Vas any ground relays used, if so problems encountered t if any 



12. AIR-STRIKES: 



a. How many were called? 



b. Locations, 



c, ¥hat results. 



d. Was the ordnance effective against the target? 

e. Include those not called by team but observed in area 

f . Effects of other types of air support. 



239 



13. ADDITIONAL I BfFQRHAT I Off : 



a. Anything not otherwise covered, 

b. General estimate of the extent of military activity in the area. 

c. Signals. 

(1) Was there an identifiable pattern to the signals? What was the 
pattern? Are different methods of signalling integrated in the 
system? 

(2) Were the signals related to enemy activity? 
<3) Vhat was the apparent meaning of the signals? 

<4) Are different types Df signals used in different areas? 



14. fiECOMKEir DAT IONS: 

a. Items Df equipment or material that can he used to improve our operational 
capability. 






240 



\l 



RANGE BEIEF 



1. Shooters will be devided into two groups 



a. Shooters < Element one ) 



b. Pit detail ( Element two > 



2- Senior man will ensure all his people are mustered with the required equipment: 



(1) 




a . Weapon 



b. 3 magazine: 



c + Ammuniton - 100 rds 



d. Field uniform 



e < Boots 



f- Pence 1 or pen 
g« Ear protection 



1. Tripod 
m. Rain gear 



h. Rifle sling 

i. Water 

j . Logbook 

k, Spotting scope 

(2) 




a, 2 cans spray glue. 

b« 1 bottal of white out for marking sights 



c. 5 300 R for connnunictions 



d« 2 plastic trash bags 



2. 




t procedures . 



<1) Range safty officer will check the range out 



241 



(2) Team leader / LPO will muster his element on the 200 yard line prior to 
shooting, so any last ml mute word can be pasted by the range safety officer. 



a. Once the word has been pasted 
postions . C Pits or Firing line ) 



the elements will proceed to their asigned 



3. 




(1) The range safety officer will be incharge of all safety and range operations 



(2) The senior man of element one will be incharge of mustering his people at 
their asigned postian. ( Firing line ) his responibilities will be: 

a. Ensure that there is enought ammunition to complete the days evolution for 
both elements, staged on the 200 yard line. 



b. That all 300 R hand raidos ( 5 each > are stage on the firing line prior to 
the days evolution. 



c. That both safety range flags are 
safety flags are stored at the U.S. E.G. 
the start of the days evolution. 



up on the flanks of the 500 
Range shack on the 500 yard 



yard line. C range 
line ) prior to 



d. Seriar man will also designate one man for range guard prior to mustering on 
the 200 yard line prior to the days evolution, 



e. Ensure that there are two large plastic bags staged at the 200 yard line prior 
to the days evolution for trash and brass colection. 



f . That all brasscaseing are policed up at the end of the days shooting 
evolution. 



4. 



■tail. 



(1) The senior man of the second element will be incharge of running and 
supervizing the pit detail. His responiblities will be: 



a. Assign a designated range guard prior to the days evolution. 



242 



b. Ensure that the range keys are cheched out to unlock the target shed. { Keys 
are located at the U.S. H, C. range shack. ) 



c. Ensure that two fresh cans of spray glue 
the start of shooting evolution. 



are taking down to the pits prior to 



d. Ensure that a 300 B hand radio is taken down to the pits prior to the start of 
the shooting evolution for coimns. back to the firing line. 



e. Ensure that bath range guards are issued range safety f 
guards departing to their assigned post ions, < Kange safety flags 
target shed in the pits ) . 




prior to the range 
are stored in the 



f . Ensure that all targets used on the days shooting evolution are in a good 
state of repair, prior to put lag the targets in their frames. 



g. Prior to the days shooting evolution, fresh target faces will be 
target frames. ( Repair target faces are located in the back room of the 




ed on the 
target shed) 



h. Prior to the days shooting evolution 200 yard targets will be pasted on the 
target frames , and after each pit change. 



i. That each man is issued a range box to 
located in the back room of the target shed ) 
following equipment is in the range boxes: 



mark targets with ( range boxes are 
the Team leader will ensure that the 



1. Black and white target pasties to mark bullet holes 

2. 3 inch spoter spindals - 

3. 1 inch spoter spindals - 

4. Target tie ins - 



j. Pit G. I.C. will be incharge of keeping time, for running 
and running them back into the pits. 



2 ~ rolls ea 



2 - 



10 - ea. 



2 - ea. 



targets into the air. 



k. Responible for conducting a good police call at the end of the days shooting 
evolution, and that all targets, range boxes and range guard flags are secured prior 
to lacking the target shed. 



5. Sang: 




243 



(1? ffornially there are two range guards on each flanks, 
<2 ) Responi bi 1 1 1 ies : 



a. Keep beach security of the impact area to enclude: 

1. Keep all personnel out of the impact area. 

2. Ensure that there is no boat triffic in the impact area, out to a range of 2 
miles and 45 degrees to the flanks. 

3. Ensure that there is no low flying aircraft in the inpact area. 

NOTE: 

If any of these seduations occur, radio coims back to the firing line must be 
made for a immediate check fire, until the inpact area is clear of all hazards. 



4. Equipment needed. 

1, 300 R hand raido, 

2* Range safety flag, 

50TE: 

Range guards willnot leave their post ions unless releaved by the range safety 
officer. 



6. 



rrm^nrir=i. { Eaval qua! . course ) 



JJOTE: the following voice commands will be given by the range safety officer 
only, shooters will not load and lock any weapons unless directed by the range safety 
officer. 



(1) Loading and locking of weapons. 



a. Shooter stand, with a magazine and 
left, all ready on the right, all ready on 
appear you may commence firing* 



5 rounds, load and lock, 
the firing line, shoot 



all ready on the 
when your targets 



<2) Dn the command from the firing line range safety officer, to the pits 0. IX, 
all targets will be rasied into the air far what ever time that is requested. 

a. Sighters - 2 mins, for 2 rounds, 
b* Slow fire - 10 mins, for 10 rounds* 



244 



c. Rapited fire - 60 sec, for 10 rounds. 



(3) The pit 0. I.C, will keep the time i for running all targets in the air and 
lowing them back into the pits aftr the designated time has lapesed. 



7. Running 




Of t 




<1> £igh±£ 



a. 2 rounds for 2 mimutes. 



b. 2 sighter rounds will be given prior to the start of the naval qual course 

c. They can be taken in any shooting postion. 

d. Targets will be rasied, lowerd, and marked for each round fired. 

e. Sighter rounds danot count for score. 



(2) Slow 



a. Slow fire will be for 10 rounds for 10 minutes. 

b. Slow fire will be conducted from the fallowing post ions: 

1. Standing, 

2. Prone. 

3. Setting. 



c. Targets will be pull, marked, recorded for score, and rasied to show the 
shooter the inpact of his round, after which the targets will remain in the air 
untill that target receives a hit from another round. this procedure will be done 
the entirer 10 rounds. 



for 



(3) Rapit fire . 



a. Rapit fire will be for ia rounds for 60 seconds. 

b. Rapit fir will be conducted from the following post ions. 

1. Setting. 

2. Prone. 



245 



c. Rapid fire will be for 10 rds . for 60 sec, with a magazine change. 

d. The shooter will have two magazine with five rounds each, 

e. On rapit fire the pits will run the targets up, on the command from the range 
safety officer on the firing line, The pit O.I.C. will rasied all the targets in the 
air at once, for 60 seconds, the pit O.I.C. will keep the time to keep the targets in 
the air. After 60 seconds has lasped, the pit O.I.C. will give the command to lower 
all targets back into the pits, after which all targets will be marked, recorded for 
score, and rasied back into the air, to show the shooter the inpact of his rounds. 



a. 



1. All weapons not on the firing line will be on safe, and unloaded, 

2 . Any accidental discharges of a weapon will be grounds for evaluating 
your assignment at this command. 

3 . No one will be allowed to go downrange without the permission of the 
range safety officer . 



246 



KARKSKANSHIP TEST 



1. THE PURPOSE OF THE MARKSMANSHIP TEST IS TO EVALUTATE THE STUDElfT ABILITY TO 
EIGAGE TARGETS AT VARIOUS RANGES, SCORING OBE POUT PER HIT WITH 50% ACCURACY. 



2. The student will be required to engage stationary targets at ranges from 300 ta 
1000 yards, moving targets 300 tO 600 yards and pop up targets from 300 to 300 yards 
and must get at lease 607* of the total rounda fired. 



3. Seeed equipment. 

a. Co mum n i cat i ons equipment . 

b. Score cards for the pits and the line < Only the pit score is valid. ) Verifier: 
should be present. 

c. Range safty officer. 

d. Cornsman. 

i 

e. Emergency vehicle. 

f. 1000 yard known distance range. 



3, CD1FDUCT OF ENGAGING STATIONARY TARGETS FROM 300 TO 1000 YARDS. 

a. Each team will be assigned a block of eight targets , each block of which will be 
designated with the left and right limits marked with a 6-foot target mounted in two 
respective carriages. Thus, the right limit for one block will also serve as the left 
limit of the next block. The following targets will serve as left and right limits 
respectively: 1, 6, 15, 22, 29, 36, and 43. The stationary target will be mounted in 
the left limit target carriage of each block. 



b. The first stage of fire at each yard line (300, 500, 600, 700, 800,900 and 1000) will 
be stationary targets from the supported pran post i an. Command will be given from the 
center of the line to load one round. The sniper and partner will have three mimutes 
to judge wind, light conditions, proper elevation hold, and fire three rounds with 
the target being pulled and marked after each shot. After the three minute time limit 
has expired, all sattionary targets will be pulled dawn, cleared, and will remain in 
the pits. There will not be a change over between sniper and observer untill the 
sniper has engaged his moving, and popup targets, which should begin immediately 
after pulling the stationary targets in the pits. 



247 



CONDUCT OF EffGAGiEG MOVING TARGETS FROH 300 TO 600 YARDS. 



a. Each student will remain at their respective firing point after engaging 
stationary targets, so they can engage their moving and popup targets, within the 
assigned block of eight targets. One of the butt pullers will post ion himself at 
left limit with the moving target + ready to utove when the stationary stage is 
completed. 



the ; 



b. The second stage of fire at each yard line <300, 500* 600, ) will be moving 
targets. The command will be given from the center of the line to load two rounds. 
Once the entire line is ready , a moving target will appear on the left limit of each 
block of targets , moving left to right. The sniper and partner will have 
approximately 15 to 20 seconds (the amount of time it takes the student to walk from 
the left limit to the right limit) inwhich to fire one round. The next target will 
move from the right limit to the left and again the sniper and his partner will have 
15 to 20 seconds to shoot one round. The target will be run up after each hit. It 
will also be up to the partner to ad vase the sniper on where his rounds are impacting 
(high, law, left, right ) , 



3. CONDUCT OF ENGAGING POPUP TARGETS FROH 300 to 300 YARDS, 



a. The next stage of fire will be popup at each yard line (300,500, 600, 700, 800) . 
Each student will remain at their respective firing point after engaging moving 
targets, so they can so they can engage their popup targets, within the assigned 
block of eight targets. 



b. The command will be given from the center line to load two rounds, once the 
entire line is ready, a popup target will appear far agiven amount of time depending 
on what yard line the shooter is on will determine the amount of time the popup 
target will appear and the size the target will be: 



(1) Ti;ne for mala - yardline x 1 = seconds of exsposure, (Exsample 300 yardline 

3x1= Sseconds) . 



(2) Target size formala - yardline x 2 minutes of angle < Exsample 400 yardline 



4x2=8 inches in target diameter). 



the shooter will engage two popup target on each yard line while his partner call 
wind and recored ail information in his data book. 



c. Popup targets will not be engaged past 600 yards. Therefore, five rounds will fa- 
fired and scored on stationary targets at 900 and 1000 yards. 



248 



TEST SCORING, 



a. Scouring will be done on the firing line as weilas in the pits. Eachstudent will 
fire 38 rounds plus two sighter on the 300 yard line tD check weapon's zero. Each 
round will be value at one point with a total value of 38 paints. Passing scare will 
be 80% of a "POSIBLE** SCORE, WHICH IS 28 HITS. Amiss will be scored as a zero. Final 
score will be determine by the pit score, and verifiers. 



249 



T 



OBSEVATIGN EXERCISE 



The purpose of the absevatian exercise is to practice the sniper's ability to observe 
an enemy and accurately record the results of his observations. 



1. DISCBIPTIOH. 



The student is given an arc of about 130 degrees to his front to observe for a period 
of not more than 40 minutes. He is issued a panoramic sketch or photograph of his arc 
and is expected to plot on the sketch or photo any objects he sees in his area. 



Objects are so positioned as to be invisible to the naked eye, indistinguishable when 
using binoculars, but recognisable when using the spotting scope. 



In chocsingthe location for the exercise, the following points should be considered: 



a. Number of object sin the arc. (normal y 12 military items). 

b. Time limit. 

c. Equipment which they are allowed to used (binos, spotting scope) 

d. Standard to be attained. 



Each student takes up the prone post! on on the observatio line and is issued a sketch 
or photo of the area. 



The instructor staff is avail ible to answer any questions about the photD or sketch 



j t 



I a 



tudent is confused. 



If the class is large , the observation line could be broken into a right side and a 
left side. A student could spend the first 20 minutes in one half and then move to 
the other. This ensures that he sees all the ground in the arc. 



At the end of 40 minutes, all sheets are collected and the students are shown the 
1 act ion of each object. This is best done by the student staying on their post ions 
and watching while the instructor points to each object. In this way, the student 
will see why he over looked the object, even though it was visible. 



A critique is then held, bring out the main points. 



257 



STALKING EXERCISES 



1. The purpose of the stalking exercise is to give the sniper confidence in his 
ability to approach and occupy a firing postion without being observed. 



2. DISCKIPTION: 



Having studied a map (and aeriel photograph, if available) + individual students must 
stulk far a predesignated distance, which could be 1000 yards or more, depending on 
the area selected, All stalking exercises and tests should be approximately 1000 
yards with a four hour time limit. The student must stail within 150 to 200 yards af 
two trained observers, wild are scanning the area with binoculars, and fire two blanks 
without being detected. 



The area used for a stalking exercise must be chosen with great care. An area in 
which a student must do the low crawl for the complete distance would be unsuitable. 
The following items should be considered: 



1, As much of the area as passible should be visible to the observer. This forces 
the student to use the trrain properly , even when far from the observer* s location. 



2. Where possible, availble cover should decrease as the student nears the 
observer's position. This will enable the student to take chances early in the 
and force hixn to move mare carefully as he closes in en his firing postion, 



talk 



3. The student must start the stalk in an area out of sight of the observer. 



4, Boundaries must be established by irteans of natural features or the use of 
markers* 



5. In a location near the jump off point for the stalk, the student is briefed an the 



fallowing: 



a- Aim of the exercise. 



b. Boundaries. 



c. Time limit ( usualy 4 hours ) 



d. Standards to be achieved. 



251 



4. After the briefings the students are dispatched at intervals to avoid congestion." 



5, In addition to the two observers, there are two "walkers^ equipped with radios, | 
who will post ion themselfs within the stalk area. If an observer sees a student, he 
will contact a walker by radio and direct him to within 5 feet of the students 
1 action. Therefore, when a student is detected, the observer can immediately tell the : 
student what gave Mid away. 



6. When the student reaches his firing post ion, which is within 150 to 200 yards of E 
the observer, he will fire a "blank round at the observer. This will tell the walker 
he is raedy to continue the rest of the exercise. The observer will then move to 
within 10 yards of the student. The observer will serch a 10 yard radius around the 
walker for the sniper student. 



If the sniper is undetected the walker will 
and fire a second blank at the observer. If 
will point to the sniper's post ion, and the 
indicates a human form, rifle, or equipment. 



tell the sniper to chamber another round 
the sniper is still unseen, the walker 
observer will serch for anything that 



If the sniper still remains undetected, the walker will move in and put his hand on 
top of the student head. The obsever will again serch in detail. If the student is 
still not seen at this point, he must tell the walker which observer he shot and what 
he is doing. The observer waves his hat, scratches his face, or makes some kind of 
gesture that the student can identify when using his telescope. 

The sniper student must then tell the walker the exact range, wind velocity, and 
windage applied to the scope. 



i 

t- 



S 

i 



■A rr""i 



critique Is conducted at the conclusion of the exercise, touching on main problems 



i 

5 
t 

I- 



If the sniper completes all of these steps correctly, he passes the stalk exercise, [ 



} 



CREATING INTEREST: 



e 

k 



To create interest and give the students practice in obsevering and stalking and 
stalking skills, one half of the class could be pDstioned to observe the conduct 
the stalk. Seeing an error made is an effective way of teaching better stalking 
skills. When a student is caught, he should be sent to the observer post <0P> to 
observe the exercise. 



of 






252 



t- 



1. All students to pass the stalking phase of the sniper course must acheved a total 
of the following: 



a. Total of 63 stalking points. 

b. Pass one stalk with a perfect score of 10 points. 



2. 3CDP.ES. (If the students are caught prior to receving a score of 10 points) 



1. 4 paints for starting the stalk. 

2. 5 points for reaching the F.F,P. and 1 
must be completely setup and ready to fire 
sniper) . 



detected by the observer (the student 
if not 4 points will be given to the 



3. 7 points for reaching the F. F.P. undetected and getting one shot off and is 
detected by the observer. (if the student cannot discribe what the observer is doing 5 
uaints will be awarded to the student. 



4, 8 points for reaching the 
detected by the observer, (if 
doing 5 points will be awared 



F.F. P. undetected, getting two shots off, and is 
the student fails to discribe what the observer 
to the sniper student. 



is 



5. 9 points for reaching the F.F. P. undetected, getting two shots off, the 
puts his hand on the student sniper's head and is detected by the observer ( 
snicer cannot discribe what the observer is doing 5 points will be awarded 
student . 



wa 1 ke r 
if the 

y n + Vijci 



NOTE. One point will be taken from what ever scars acheved for the following: 
a. Incorrect windage. 



b, Incorrect rans:e setting 



tj -&- 



c. In: 
of obj ect „ 
barrel and 



orrect rifle setup(tape over muzzle, 
barrel is not free floating from not 
the stoci: of the weapon. 



barrel of weapon laying on any kind 
removing obstuction frcn "between the 



NOTE : A score of will be awarded to any student who exceeds the 
■ 

boundaries of any stalk. 



253 






The purpose of the hide construction exercise is to show the 
hide and remain undetected while "being observed. The purpose 
camouflage a sniper or sniper team which is not in movement. 



sniper how to build a 
of a hide is to 



1. DESCRIPTION. 



The sniper team is given B hours to 'build a temporary hide large enough to hold a 
sniper team with all their necesary equipment. 



The hide area should be selected with great care, It can be in any type terrain, 
there should be more than enough prospective spots in which to build a hide. The 
should be easily bounded by left and right, far a?irt npsr limits so that when the 
instructor paints out the limits to the students, they can be easly and quickly 
identified. There should be enough tools < i. e. , axes, picks, shovels, and sandbags) 
avail ible to accommodate the entire class. There must be sufficient rations and 
water availible to the student to last the entire exercise, 9Vk hours. 



but 
are 



CONDUCT 0? THE EXERCISE. 



The students are 
The students are 
their time limit 
allowed to begin 



issued a shovel, ax, pickax, and approximately 20 sandbags per team 
brought to the area and briefed on the purpose of the exercise, 
for construction, and their area limits. The students are then 
construction of their hides. 



NOTE: An instructor should be present at all time to act as an advisor. 



At the end of 3 hours, the student's hides are all checked to ensure that they are 
complete. An flaval special warfare officer is brought out to act as an observer. He 
is placed in an area 300 yards from the hide area, where he starts his observation 
with binoculars and a 20k, spotting scope. The observer, after failing to find a hi 
is brought forward 150 yards and again commences observation. 



de 



An instructor in the field (walker with radio; then moves to within 10 yards of a 
hide and informs the observer. The observer then tells the walker to have the sniper 
in the hide to load and fire a blank, If the sniper's muzzle blast is seen, or if the 
hide is seen due tD improper construction, the team fails, but they remain in the 
hide. These procedures are repeated for all the sniper teams. 



254 



The observer is then brought down to within 25 yards of each hide to determine 
whether they can be seen with the naked eye at that distance, 



The observer is not shown the hide. He must find it. 



If the sniper team is located at 25 yards, it fails and is allowed to come out and 
see its discrepancies. If the team is not seen, it passes. 



3. OTHER REQUIREMENTS. 



The sniper team should also be required to fill out a range card and a sniper's log 
hook and mate a sketch. One v/ay of helping them achieve this is to have an instructor 
shoeing" flash cards" front 150 yards away, begiing when the observer arrives and 
ending when the observer moves to Hi thin 25 yards- The sniper teams should record 
everything they see on the flash cards and anything going on at the observation post 
during the exercise. 



4, STANDARDS. 



The sniper teans are required to pass all phases in 
range cards , log books, and field sketches inust be 
determination of pass or fail. 



order to pass the exercise, 
turned in for grading and a 



All 
final 



255 



RANGE E5TAMATI0N EXE5C1SES 



Purpose of the range estimation exercises are to make the sniper proficient 
in accurately judging distance. 



1- DESCRIPTION. 

The student is taken to an observatio post, and different objects over distances of 
up to 1000 meters are indicated to him. After tiise for consideration, he writes dawn 
the estimated distance to each object. He may use only his binoculars and rifle 
telescope as aids, and he must estimate to within 10% of the correct range (a 6-fcot 
nan-size target should be utilized). 



► 



Each exercise must take place in a different area, offering a variety of terrain. The 
exercise areas should include dead ground as well as places where the student will be 
observing uphill or downhill. Extra objects should he selected in case those 
originally chosen cannot be seen due to weather or for other reasons. 



i 



CONDUCT OF THE EXERCISE. 



1. The students are brought to the obervation post, 
a reveiw on the methods of judging distances and the 
are briefed on the foil awing: 



issued a record card, and given 
causes of miscalculation, they 



Aim ef the exercise. 



F. 

If" 



i 



] 

i 



b. Refer 



^ . 



ence pa 



n- s 



Time limit. 



d. Standard to be achieved. 



2. Students are spread out and the first object is indicated. The student will have 
3 raimutes ta estimate the distance and write it down. The sequence is repeated for a 



total of eight objects. The cards are collected, and the correct range to each object 
is given. The tnstructor points out in each case why the distance might be 
underestimated or overestimated. After correction, the cards are given back to the 
students after the instructor has recorded the scores of the students. In this way 
the students retains a records of his pe rf or me nee . 



3. STANDARDS. The student is deemed to have failed if he estimates three or more 
targets incorrectly 



I 






256 



i 



2. SCDEIBFG. 



Students are given half a point far each abject correctly plotted and another point 
far naming the object correctly. 



3. STANDARDS. 



The students is deemed to have failed if he score 
points. 



s less than 6 points out of 12 



258 



T 



HEMDRY EXERCISE <KIK' S GAME) 



The purpose of the nsemory exercise is to teach the sniper student to observe and 
remember a number of unrelated objects. In combat, the sniper brequires a good memory 
in order to report facts accurately, because he may not be in a pastian to write them 
down. The Kim's game is to help the student In observation techniques. The better he 
does on the Kim's games, the more confident he will be during the ■ observation 
exercises. 



1. PREPARATION, 



a. The Instructor places 12 small 
They could be anything from a paper 
object and it's color and It's most 
(color, shape, size, lettering, etc) . 



objects on a table (usualy 12 
clip to a 40mm round. He note 
dist irtgushable features 



military objects) 
the name of each 



b. The student are placed in a circle around a covered table and told the purpose 
of the exercise. 



2- CONDUCT DF THE EXERCISE. 



a. The instructor tells the students there are 12 objects on the table. He explains 
that they have a small amount of tisne to look and a slightly longer amount at tine to 
write. This could range from 2 minutes to look and 2te minutes to write on the first 
exercise to 20 seconds to look and 30 seconds to write on the last exercise. 



b. After the "looking" time limit is yip, the students are given a time limit to 
write down what they saw. 



c. Papers are cllected 
what they missed. 



and the objects are again displayed to show the students 



DEGREE OF DIFFICULTY. 



a. Successive games can he increased in difficulty by: 



a. Shorting the limits to look and write. 



b. Creating distractions, such as music, noise ( etc 



259 



Ck Sending the students on a short run after they view the objects, then given them 
a shorter amount of time to write. 



d. Having the students go on 
ohjects, then after returning 
saw in the Kim* s game. 



a scheduled field craft exercise after viewing the 

<1 to 2 hours later) t having them write down what they 



260 



r 



CAMOUFLAGE AED COffCEALKEFT EXERCISES 



Camouflage and concealment exercises are held to help the sniper student to select 
final firing postions. 



1. DESCRIPTION 



The student conceals himself within 200 yards of an observer, who, using binoculars h 
tries to find the student. The student must be able to fire blank ammuntion at the 
observer without being seen, and have the correct elevation and windage on his 
sights. The student must remain unseen throughout the conduct of the exercise. 



In choosing the location for the exercise , the instructor ensures that certain 
condistions are met. These are: 

a. There must be adequate space to ensure students are not crowed together in the 
area. There should be at lease twice the number of potential post ions as there are 
students. Once the area has been established the limits should be marked in some 
manner (e, g. , flags, trees, prominent features, etc) . Students should then he allowed t 
choose their final firing postion. 



b- The observer must be located where he can see the entire problem area, 



As therewill be serveral concealment exercise throughout the sniper course, different 
types of terrain should be choosen in order that the student may practice concealment 
in varied condistions, For instance, one exercise could place in fairly open area, 
one along a wood line, one in shrubs, and another in hilly or rough terrain. 



2. CONDUCT OF THE EXERCISE. 



The sniper is given a specified area with boundaries in which to conceal himself 
properly. The observers turn their backs to the area and allow the students 5 
minutes to conceal themselves. Athte end of 5 ninutes, the obersvers turn and 

This observation should 
last approximately one-half hour. 



commence observation in their search for concealed snipers. 



At the conclusion of the observation, the observer will instruct, by radio, one of 
the two walkers in the field to move to within the 10 meters ox one of the snipers. 
The sniper is given one blank. If the sniper cannot be seen by the observer after 
moving to within 10 meters, the walker will tell him to load and fire his blank. 



261 



The observer is looking far muzzle blast, vegitatian flying after the shot, and 
movement by the sniper before and after he fires. 



If the student cannot be seen, the walker then extends 
direction, indicating his pastion. If the sniper still 
indictian, the walker goes to the sniper's postion and 
tie observer, directly on top of the sniper's head, 



his arm in the sniper's 

reinains unseen after 

places his hand, palm facing 



If the sniper passes all the above, he must then state his elevation, windage, and 
what type of movement the observer is making. 



t 
I 



3. STANDARDS. 



he sniper 



tudent must meet all the above ccndtions to receive a ua^sins: score. 



The student is deemed 
paints, k total of 10 

cOLcediUjeiiu exercises . 



to have failed if he does not recieve a passing score of d 
points must be accumalated in order to pass the camouflage and 
exercises will be given throughout the course;. 



i'd 



i 



262 




^ 






SCOUT /SNIPER OBSERVER HALO/HAHQ INSERTION EQUIPMENT 




SN IP ER /OBSERVER EQUIPMENT, READY TO BE DONNED 



1. 


WATCH 








9. 


MTIX PARACHUTE 


2. 


THERMAL UNDERWEAR 


FOR 




10. 


QUICK RELEASES 




HIGH- ALTITUDE 


JUMPS 




11. 


"■ft" HARNESS 


3. 


SECOND-LINE EQUIPMENT 


BAG 


12. 


BOOTS 


4. 


RUCKSACK 








13. 


HIGH- ALTITUDE- JUMP GLOVES [MITTENS J 


5. 


HELMET 








14. 


ALTIMETER 


6, 


OXYGEN MASK 








15. 


FIELD UNIFORM 


7, 


GOGGLES 








16. 


HOOK KNIFE 


8. 


OXYGEN BOTTLE 













266 




SNIPER/ OB SERVER RUCKSACK AND SECOND^ LINE EQUIPMENT BAG 

1. RUCKSACK 

2. QUICK RELEASES 

3. SECOND-LINE EQUIPMENT 

4. "R" HARNESS 










SNIPER/OBSERVER MISSION, ESSENTIAL EQUIPMENT 



1, 


SECOND -LINE EQUIPMENT 


3. 


OXYGEN BAILOUT 


BOTTLE 


16.30-ROUKD MAGAZINES 


2, 


PRC-113 FIELD RADIO 


9. 


LASER RANGE FINDER 


17. PRIMARY WEAPON 


3. 


MTIX MAIN PARACHUTE AND RESERVE 


10 


.HAHO COMPASS 




18.CAMMIE PAINT 


4. 


HELMET 


11 


SPOTTING SCOPE 




19. BUG REPELLANT 


S. 


GOGGLES 


12 


HOOK KNIFE 




20* OBSERVER LOGBOOK 


6. 


BOOTS 


13 


TRIPON 




21.VDT LIFE JACKET 


7. 


OXYGEN BREATHING MASK 


14, 


BINDS 




22. OBSERVER FIELD UNIFORM 



15. ~H" HARNESS 



23. SECONDARY WEAPON 




SNIPER MISSION INSERTION EQUIPMENT 



1. SECOND -LINE EQUIPMENT 

2. MTIX MAIN PARACHUTE, 
AND RESERVE 

3. SECOND LINE EQUIPMENT BAG 

4 . HELMET 

5. OXYGEN BREATHING MASK 

6. OXYGEN BAILOUT BOTTLE 

7. HAHO GOLVES 



8, 


alt:metee 


15. 


CAMMIE PAINT 


9. 


HAHO COMPASS 


16. 


BUG REPELLANT 


10. 


HOOK KNIFE 


17. 


SNIPER LOGBOOK 


11. 


RUCKSACK 


IS. 


PEN 


12, 


"H" HARNESS AND QUICK RELEASES 


19. 


SNIPER FIELD UNIFORM 


13. 


PRIMARY WEAPON 


20, 


SECONDARY WEAPON 


14, 


BIND 


21, 


VDT LIFE JACKET 




SNIPER EQUIPMENT FULLY DONNED, FROWT VIEW 






270 



^^•^^m^^^^^^^^^m 







SNIPER EQUIPMENT FULLY DONNED, SIDE VIEW 



271 




SNIPER OBSERVER WITH HAHO EQUIPMENT DONNED P FRONT VIEW 



272 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^m 




PROPER WEAPONS STORAGE, SIDE VIEW 






273 




EQUIPMENT TO BE PREPPED FOR KATERBORNE INSERTION. NOTE THAT THE SCOPE HAS BEEN REMOVED FROM 
THE RIFLE AND WATERPROOFED; TORQUE WRENCH REQUIRED TO REMOUNT IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN ZERO. 




SCOUT/ SNIPER WATERBORNE INSERTION EQUIPMENT 






FULLY SUITED UP r LESS RIFLE (FRONT VIEW} 



276 










FULLY SUITED UP r LESS RIFLE {REAR VIEW) 



277 




READY-TO-DON DIVING GEAR {FRONT VIEW, WETSUIT UNDER FLIGHT SUIT) 




READY-TO-DON DIVING GEAR {REAR VIEW, WETSUIT UNDER FLIGHT SUIT) 







SEAL (KNEELING) WITHOUT GHILLIE SUIT AT LEFT; SEAL {KNEELING) IN GHILLIE SUIT AT RIGHT 







MODIFIED GEIILLIE SUIT, REAR VIEW 



288 



} 







GHILLIE SUIT, REAR VIEW 



283 




VARIOUS SEAL SNIPER WEAPONS AND EQUIPMENT 







P ■ TV, 



>■* ' * ' 



*\ 



SEAL WITHOUT G HILL IE SUIT 




SCOUT /SNIPER FIELD GEAR, READY FOR DONNING 



264 



— / 



Im 



' f ■£ 



■■m 



? 






i 



r 

I 




*v<- 












■ 



" 






M-16 WITH MIGHT-VISION SCOPE 



— 




I 



SEAL SNIPER WITH GHILLIE SUIT 







SCOUT /SNIPER, FULLY SUITED UP 



2fi2 







1 q 



SNIPER IN GHILLIE SUIT BLENDS IK WITH TREE 




fit vfc 



SCOUT/ SNIPER OBSERVER FIELD GEAR, READY FOR DONNING 



— / 



Im 



' f ■£ 



■■m 



? 






i 



r 

I 




*v<- 












■ 



" 






M-16 WITH MIGHT-VISION SCOPE 



— 




I 



SEAL SNIPER WITH GHILLIE SUIT 




V 






■ 



■ 




SEAL {STANDING} WITHOUT SNIPER GHILLIE SUIT ON LEFT; SNIPER (STANDING) IN GHILLIE SUIT AT RIGHT 





GHILLIE SUIT 






2fl5 




VARIOUS SEAL SNIPER WEAPONS AND EQUIPMENT 



Enclosure 1 




DAY 1 . 

CLASS ROOM (AM) 

CLASS ROOK (PM) 



£A£ 



KNOVN 
CLASS 
KIM'S 
CLASS 



DISTANCE RANGE <AK) 

ROOM. <?m; 

GAMES # 1 (PM) 

ROOK (PM) 



'■/Ait 






KSTOVN 
^:ANGE 

KZK'S 
CLASS 



DISTANCE RANGE (AM) 

ESTIMATION EXERCISE # I (PM> 

GAMES # 2 (PH> 

ROOM (PM) 



DAY 4. 

KIQVJf DISTANCE RANGE CAM) 

03SERVATI0U EXERCISE # 2 (PM) 

RANGE ESTIMATION EXERCISE # 2 (PM) 

KIM' S GAMES #3 (PM) 

CLASS BOOK (PM) 



im. 



KNQVN DISTANCE RANGE (AM) 

OBSERVATION EXERCISE # 3 (PM) 

RANGE EST I MAT I OH EXERCISE # 3 (PM) 

KIM' S GAMES #4 (PM) 

CLASS ROOM (PM) 



DAY 5. 



LAND NAVIGATION EXERCISE TEST (AM) 

KNOWN DISTANCE RANGE, 

INTRODUCTION TO THE 50 CAL SVS (PM) 

CAMMIE AND CONCEALMENT EXERCISE # 1 (PM) 



297 



DA Y 7, 



OFF 



DAY ft,. 

STALK #1 (AM , 

KNOWN DISTANCE RANGE <?H) 

OBSERVATION EXERCISE # 4 (FM; 

RANGE ESTIMATION EXERCISE # 4 <PM) 

CLASS ROOM <px) 



DAY 9. 



KNOWN 
RANGE 
FIELD 
CLASS 



DISTANCE RANGE. . . . 
CARDS AND 
SKETCHING EXERCISE 
ROOM 



-■lit 



# 1 



■ » ■ 



4 1 t 



■ H I- * ■ '. + + * *. J 



. . <FM) 
. . (PM) 



DAY 1Q^_ 



KNOWN DISTANCE RANGE (AH) 

OBSERVATION EXERCISE # 5 (PM) 

RANGE ESTIMATION EXERCISE # 5 (PM; 

KIM'S GAMES # 5 



' ij 






ASS ROOM <px) 



KNOWN DISTANCE RANGE (AM) 

OBSERVATION EXERCISE # 6 (?M) 

RANGE ESTIMATION EXERCISE # 6 (PM; 

KIM'S GAMES » 6 cp?[> 

CLASS ROOM tpii> 



DJJLA^ 



. . CAM) 



STALK #2 

KNOWN DISTANCE RANGE (FM) 



LAND NAVIGATION EXERCISE # 2 (AM) 

50 CAL SVS, UNKNOWN DISTANCE RANGE (PM) 



298 



DAY 14. 



OFF 



ElAj 

STALK #3 (ATO 

UNKNOVN DISTANCE RANGE <PM> 

RANGE ESTIMATION EXERISE # 7 (PM) 

OBSERVATION EXERCISE # 7 IPJ!) 

CLASS ROOK CPU) 

DAY 1SL. 

UNKNOVN DISTANCE RANGE (AM) 

KIK 1 S GAME #7 (PK) 

CLASS ROOK <LZ/PZ, CALL FOR FIRE? (PM) 

DAY 17. 

unknown distance range (ax> 

held insertions and 

call for fire (px) 

STALK # 4 {AH) 

UNKNOVN DISTANCE RANGE <PK> 

NIGHT SHOOT, KNOVN DISTANCE RANGE (PK) 

DAY L^. 

STALK #5 (AK) 

UNKNOWN DISTANCE RANGE (PK) 

DAY 20, 

LAND NAVIGATION EXERCISE # 3 (AH) 

50 CAL SVS, UNKNOWN DISTANCE RANGE (PM) 



OFF 



299 



DAY 23. 

STALK #6 CAM) 

UNKNOWN DISTANCE RANGE (PM) 

KIM' S GAME # S fPM) 

CLASS ROOM (PH> 



MY 23, 

OOVN DISTANCE RANGE CAM) 

OBSERVATION EXERCISE # S t?M> 

RANGE ESTIMATION EXERCISE # 8 <PM> 

FIELD SKETCHING EXERCISE # 2 <.PM> 

CLASS ROOM <PM) 



DAY 24. 



KNOWN DISTANCE RAKE :AM> 

KIM'S GAMES #9 '.PM> 

NIGHT SHOOT, UNKNOWN DISTANCE RANGE <PM) 



P AY 25. 



UNKNOWN DISTANCE RANGE 
FIELD SKETCHING A3D 
RANGE CARDS EXERCISE # 



3. 



(AM) 



(PK> 



DAY 26. 

STALK #7 CAM) 

KNOWN DISTANCE RANGE (PM) 



DAL_2J\ 



LAND NAVIGATION EXERCISE # 4 

50 CAL SVS, UNKNOWN DISTANCE RANGE. 



(AM) 



........ (PM) 



DAY 28. 



OFF 



300 



DAY 29. 

STALK #8 (AM) 

KNOVff DISTANCE RANGE (PJO 

CLASS BOOH CPU) 

UlTOOVN DISTANCE RANGE (AM) 

RANGE ESTIMATION EXERCISE #9 (PS) 

DAY 31. 

UNKNOWN DISTANCE RANGE (AH) 

OBSERVATION EXERCISE * 9 (PH) 

KIM' S GAHES #10 (PH) 

CLASS POOH (PH) 

DAY 32 . 

KNOW DISTANCE RANGE <AK) 

RANGE ESTIMATION EXERCISE it 10 <PK) 

OBSERVATION EXERCISE # 10 (PH.) 

CLASS ROOK 



PAY 3 3, 

STALK #10 (AH) 

INTERNAL SECURITY SHOOT, 

'JMNOVH DISTANCE RANGE (PH) 

K3IGHT SHOOT, KNOVN DISTANCE RANGE (PH) 

LAND NAVIGATION EXERCISE # b (AH) 

KELO INSERT I ON/ EXTRACT IONS (PH) 



DJJ_&^ 



OFF 



301 



PAY 3 6, 

STALK #11 s . , , . <AR) 

ODVJ DISTANCE RANGE <FRj 

OBSERVATION EXERCISE # 11 (PM) 

RANGE ESTAKATION EXERCISE # 11 (PM) 

PRACTICE MARKSMANSHIP TEST 

KNOW DISTANCE RANGE (AX) 

PRACTICE MARKSMANSHIP TEST 

UNKNOWN DISTANCE (FX> 

WRITTEN TEST CPK) 

DAY 36. 

MARKSMANSHIP* TEST 

XNOVM DISTANCE RANGE (AX) 

MARKSMANSHIP TEST 

UNKNOWN DISTANCE RANGE (PR) 

MISSION TASKING (FTX) (?M> 

WARNING ORDER (AM; 

PATROL ORDER (PXj 

fix (helo insertion) (fx) 

da y 10 , 

^X (AH/PR) 

FTX (HELO EXTRACTION) - (AM) 

FTX (HELO INSERTION) (PR) 

SKY 42*. 

FTX ;HELO EXTRACTION) (AM) 

CAMP CLEAN UP CAR) 

EQUIPMENT CLEAN UP AND FREP (PR) 

TRANSIT (PM) 

302 



■i 









-J 



Enclosure 2 Required Equ ipment L o ad Ou t. 



CKULK 
CHULK 
CHULK 
PAPER 
PENS. 



BOARD 

(VARIOUS COLORS). 

ERASER 

NOTE BOOK PADS,. . 



lea 



u 



■r * p 



pit p -i 



PENCIL 

GREASE PENCELS. 
SLIDE PROJECTOR 
EXTENSION CORD. 

200 YARD PAPER TARGETS 

200 YARD REPAIR FACES 

BLACK TARGET PASTIES 1 

WHITE TARGET PASTIES 1 

TARGET DISKS l\ 3' ,*>■ . . 

TARGET PASTE 

TARGET FBI 

TARGET DOG 

TOMATO STAKES o FT 

PAINT SPRAY WHITE 



« lea 

10ea 

Sea (boxes/ 

3ea v boxes) 

3ea (boxes) 

lea 

lea 

1 OOea 

iyuea 

Oea {rolls) 

Oea -rolls) 



i ■ » i 



i ■ » h 



■ iii 



L ■. ■ I I 



I - ■ 



-= I I 



■ hi 



I I h ■ 



PA I. NT SPRAY BLACK. . 

STAPLE GUJf 

STAPLES 

HAMMER 

NAILS 

RANGE BOX 

BREAK FREE 1 QT BOTTLE 

filJH CLEANING EQUIPMENT BOX, 
TOOLS VARIOUS 

rCAtjo - i p .. , . - , , , -i h - * 

TORQUE WRENCH 

KIMS GAMES MATERIAL 

OBSERVATION EXERCISE MATERIAL. 

CHEK LIGHTS 

WATER 5 GAL CONTAINERS 

BATTERIES AA 

BATTERIES BA5590 (NVG) 

MX-300 HAND RADIO 

MX -300 BATTERY CHARGER 

PRC-I13 

PRC-117 

HAND SMOKE GERNADE YELLOW 

HAND SMOKE GERNADE GREEK 

HAND SMOKE GERNADE RED 

HAND FLARE POP-UP RED STAR CLUSTER 

HAND ELAKE POP-UP GREEN STAR CLUSTER 

HAND FLARE POP-UP WHITE STAR CLUSTER 



iea \ ooxes * 
riea (boxes / 

-,•=■3. ■-, boxes; 

'-ml -J •■—■ E_ . 

4e3 



^ea 



<J ■_ -i_t 



l— --_» H»A 



'-f;0^ 



O ^ 



^.M 



f bnxes 



2ea 



-PTPI _UT "■.-■. 



■". bcx£5> 
(buntiei > 



■^ i 



■ ■I 



■ ■ ■ ■ 



I H ■ 4 



1 ^£1 

1.2 -exercise 

lOuea 

2ea 

2ea (boxas) 

6ea 

lea 

2ea (complete) 

5ea (complete) 

lOea 

!0ea 

Iflea 

lea 'case) 
lea (case) 
lea 'case ) 



303 



HAND FLARE POP- UP WHITE PARACHUTE lea (case) 

BOOBIE TRAP FLARE POP-UP 6ea Obexes) 

AMMO BOXES (land navigation points) 12ea 

MP 1 : 25000. . / 15ea Operation area 

MAP i r 50000 15ea 'operation area) 

PRDTRACTOE 1 : 25000/1 : 50000 15ea 

OVERLAY PAPER < j , . . . . lea (box) 

MAGIC MARKERS VARIOUS COLORS 2ea 

ACETATE PAPER lea ^oll) 

BINOS 4ea 

SPOTTING SCOPES 4ea 

NIGHT VISION GOGGLE 4ea 

NIGHT VISION SCOPE FVS-4/M-845 2ea 

fl-86 SNIPER RIFLE 4ea 

M-14 RIFLE 4ea 

BERRETTA 92FB 2ea 

EAR PROTECTION 2ea (boxes) 

PARA COED 550 1 ^a (roll > 

NY L Off TUBULAR V lea (roll ) 

RUBBER BANDS 2ea (boxes) 

LANTERN COLKAN 2ea 

GENERATOR PORTABLE lea 

GAS CAN 5 GAL lea 

MOTOR OIL 1 QT 2ea 

TRASH BAGS LARGE 3ea (boxes? 

RIGGER' S TAPE 4ea (rolls) 

TEST 30 MAN lea 

I . R. NETTING WOOL AND /DES EST lea (terrain dictates) 

OKA IE PORTABLE 4ea 

TABLE PORTABLE lea 

AMMUNITION 7.62iEm 1-113 as required 

AMMUNITION 7, 62am M-30 as required 

AMMUNITION 50 CAL as required 

TRANSPORTATION as required 

GOVERNMENT CREDIT CARD lea 

ENTRENCHING TOOL 4ea 

AX lea 

SLEDGE HARMER lea 

300/500 YARD PAPER TARGETS 50ea 

300/600 YARD PAPER REPAIR CENTERS lOOea 

DEMO BOX lea 

ELECTRIC BLASTING CAPS lOOea 

ARTILLERY SIMULATORS 2ea (cases) 

GERNADE HAND SIMULATORS 2ea (cases) 

GERNADE HAND SIMULATORS C. S lea (case) 

BUNG IE CORD lea (roll) 

PLY VO0D > 2ea. (standard, sheet ) 

VOOD 2X4 *ea 

PAPER ROLL (white) 6" X 25" lea 

WATER PROOF BAG (american safety bag) 2ea 



304 




Man 



Enclosure 3 




Student Loa d Out. 



CARRIES 

CARRIE HAT 

JURGLE HAT 

BOOTS 

FLIGHT GLOVES 

VARK CLOTHS 

CARRIE PAINT 

STANDARD VEB GEAR <M~14>. 

SJFAP LINK 

CDRPASS 



IbpBkHlb 



■■ H - 



r'LAoxi LrlVjiil.. »-.*.»-■ ».■.., 

FAST BOPE GLOVES 

RUCK SACK (small) 

HOLSTER <9mm) . . . 
HAGS Oram) 



4 ■ * 



* ■ i I 1 



?1A LJo (H 14/,.. 

M-&6 SRI PER RIFLE 

K~14 RIFLE 

RIFLE CLEANIRG GEAR (R-14/R-66) . 

BINDS 

SPOTTING SCOPE 

NOTE BOOK 

SHOOTER 1 S DATA BOOK 

PENCIL/PEN 

PAPER 

GILLIE SUIT MAKING MATERIAL 

STROBE LIGHT W I . E, COVER 

XK-13 FLARE 

CtiEH LIGHT 

PONCHO. , . = 

RAIH GEAR 

PONCHO LINER 



■ ■ 



2ea 
lea 
2ea 
2ea 
lea 
ias 

(do 

le£ 



oea 



lea 
lea 
lea 
lea 
lea 
3ea 

*j e a 

lea 
lea 

lea 
led 
lea 
lea 



1 £. 



23 



^6ri 



las 






lea 
2ea 



■ ■-!■■ 1-^hBl ■■-■■ 



SLEEPING BAG 

UDT LIFE JACKET 

WATER PROOF BAG (AMERICAS SAFELY BAG? 

WET SUIT 

BUG SPRAY 

KNIFE 

TOWEL 

SIGHT VISIDJf SCOPE (PYS-4/R-345 

V/ M-14 ROUST 

PROTECTIVE CARRYING CASE R-U/R-96 

ENTRENCHING TOOL V/ COVER 

DRAG BAG 



1 



»i»iLt*i»i»l 



oea 
lea 
lea 
lea 

1 ^^ 
j, --^ ■.— <- 

ea 

(as 

(as 

lea 

lea 



required J 
required 



-1 "a 



required) 
reqr- tre<i? 
required; 



requ ired) 



required) 
required; 



lea 

. le 






lea 

iea 
lea 



r 



305 



HAND FLARE POP-UP VHITE PARACHUTE lea (case) 

BODBIE TRAP FLARE POP-UP ^ea (boxes) 

AMMO BOXES (land navigation paints) 12ea 

MAP 1 : 25000 * 5ea (operation area) 

MAP I : 50000 15ea (operation area) 

PROTRACTOR 1 : 25000/1 : 50000 15ea 

OVERLAY PAPER lea tbox > 

KAGIC MARKERS VARIOUS COLORS 2ea 

ACETATE PAPER lea <roll ) 

BINDS 4ea 

SPOTTING SCOPES *ea 

NIGHT VISION GOGGLE ^a 

NIGHT VISION SCOPE PVS-4/M-845 2ea 

M-66 SNIPER RIFLE 4ea 

K-14 RIFLE 4ea 

BERRETTA 92FB 2ea 

EAR PROTECTION 2ea (boxes) 

PARA CORD 550 lea (roll > 

NYLON TUBULAR 1' ^a (roll) 

RUBBER BANDS 2ea (boxes) 

LANTERN COLMAN - 2ea 

GENERATOR PORTABLE lea 

GAS CAN 5 GAL lea 

MOTOR OIL 1 QT 2ea 

TRASH BAGS LARGE 3ea (boxes) 

RIGGER' S TAPE 4ea (rolls) 

TENT 30 MAN lea 

I. R. NETTING WOOL AND/ DESERT lea (terrain dictates) 

CHAIR PORTABLE 4ea 

TABLE PORTABLE lea 

AMMUNITION 7.623KH K-118 as required 

AMMUNITION 7.&22UII M-30 as required 

AMMUNITION 50 GAL as required 

TRANSPORTATION as required 

GOVERNMENT CREDIT CARD lea 

ENTRENCHING TOOL 4ea 

AX lea 

SLEDGE HAMMER lea 

300/500 YARD PAPER TARGETS 50ea 

300/600 YARD PAPER REPAIR CENTERS. . lOOea 

DEMO BOX lea 

ELECTRIC BLASTING CAPS lQOea 

ARTILLERY SIMULATORS 2ea (cases) 

GERNADE HAND SIMULATORS 2ea (cases) 

GERNADE HAND SIMULATORS C. S lea (case) 

BUNGIE COED lea (roll) 

PLY VOOD 2ea (standard sheet ) 

WOOD 2X4 4ea 

PAPER ROLL (waite) 5" X 25" lea 

WATER PROOF BAG (anterican safety bag) 2ea 



306 



Enclosure 4 




1. The purpose of the marksmanship test is to evaluate the student* s ability to 
engage targets at various ranges, scoring one paint per hit with 80% accuracy. 



2. The student will be required to engage stationary targets at ranges 
1000 yards, moving targets 300 tO 600 yards and pop- up targets from 300 
and must get at lease 80% of the total rounds fired. 



from 300 to 
to 300 yards 



3. 




h 



a> CojniBuni cat ions equipment MX-300R v4ea) 






care cards far the pits and tie line (Only the pit score is valid.) Verifiers 



should be present (2ea>. 

■ 

c. Range Safety Officer 



LL. 



CorpsmaTi- 
Emergency vehicle . 



o ■ 



1000 yard known distance ranpe. 



P.ange Guards (if required) 



■F EKGAGIBO STA' 



X TARGET S FROM 300 T O 1000 YABDS. 



a. Each team will be assigned a block of eight targets, each block of which will be 
designated with the left and right limits marked with a 6~foct target mounted in two 
respective carriages. Thus, the right limit for one block will also serve as the left 
limit of the next block. The following targets will serve as left and right limits 
respectively: 1, 3, 15, 22 , 29, 36, and 43, The stationary target will be mounted in 
the left limit target carriage of each block. 



b. The first stage of fire at each yard line <300, 500, 500, 700, S00, 900 and 
1000) will be stationary targets from the supported prone position. Commands will be 
given from the center of the line by the range safety officer to load one round. The 
sniper and partner will have three mi mutes to judge wind, light conditions, proper 
elevation hold, and fire three rounds with the target being pulled and marked after 
each shot. 



307 



<2J Target size formula - yard line x 2 = target diameter. 
( Example 400 yard line - 4 x 2 = B inches in target diameter). 

The shooter will engage two pop-up target on each yard line while his partner calls 
wind and recored all information in his data book. 

c Fop-up targets will not be engaged past 800 yards. Therefore, five rounds will be 
fired and scored on stationary targets at 900 and 1000 yards. 



4 . TEST CORING. SCQRIKG . 



a Scaurin? will be done on the firing line and in the pits. 
44 rounds plus two sighter on the 300 yard line to check weapon 
will be valued at one point with a total value of 44 points. Passing 
80% or a "POSSIBLE" score, or 38 hits. A miss will be scored as a zero, 
will be determine by the pit score, and verifiers. 



Each student will fire 
s zero. Each round 
care will be 
h i=i^ a -7.<?>rr\. Final score 



E 

1 

! 
j. 

i 

I 
1 



p 

1 



308 



Enclosure 5 



n Test. 



I. The purpose of the observation exercise is to sharpen the sniper's ability to 
observe an enemy and accurately record the results of his observations. 



? 



iJE_I 



a- The student is given 
period of not more than 
his arc and is expected 



an arc of about 160 degrees to his front to observe for a 
40 minutes, He is issued a panoramic sketch or photograph of 
to plot on the sketch or photo any objects he sees in his 






I 

1 



b. Objects are so positioned as to be invisible to the naked eye, indistinguishable 
Khen ustn.g binoculars, but recognizable when using the spotting scope. 

c. In choosing the location for the exercise, the following points should be 
considered: 

(i j dumber of objects in the arc. (normally 12 military I terns), 

(3) Time limit. t40 minutes) . 

<3) Equipment which they are allowed to use- (binos, spotting scope). 

(4) Standard to be attained. iSQ%) 



1 



c. Each student 
sketch or photo 
questions about 



takes up the 
of the area, 
the photo or 



prone postion on xhe observation line and is issued 
The instructor staff is avail ible to answer any 
sketch if a student is confused- 



If the class is large, the observation line could be broken into a right side and a 
left side. A student could spend the first 20 minutes in one halt and then move to 
the other. This ensures that he sees all the ground in the arc. 

At the end of 40 minutes, all sheets are collected and the students are shown the 
location of each object. This is best done by the students staying on their positions 
and watching while the instructor points to each object. In this way, the student 
will see why he overlooked the object, even though it was visible. 



e. A critique is then held, bringing out the main points. 



■ % 



309 



a. Student are given half a point for each obj 
for naming the object correctly. 



ect correctly plotted and another point 



PT/lffftAKDS. 



a. The 
points 



;tudent is deemed to have failed if ne scores less than 8 points out of 12 



b During the duration of the 6 weeks of training 11 excercises 
The student oust pass with 60% accuracy 6 of the 11 observation 
successfully pass the observation test. 



will be conducted, 
exercises in order 



fa 



310 



Enclosure 6 




1. Purpose of the range estimation exercises is to make the sniper proficient in 
accurately judging distance. 



CQHM 




a. The student is taken to an observation post, and different objects over distances 
Df tip to 1000 meters are indicated to him. Ait or time for consideration, the student 
writes down the estimated distance to each object. He may use only his binoculars and 
rifle telescope as aids, and he must estimate to within 10ft of the correct range [ '.:x 
6-foot man-size target should be utilized). 



b. Each exercise (11 ea. ) must take place in a different area, offering a variety o: 
terrain, The exercise areas should include dead ground as well as places where the 
student will be observing uphill or downhill. Extra objects should be selected in 
case those original iy chosen cannot be seen due to weather or for other reasons. 



H 'Vl O" l yfiTi 



~ o *■ * - 



a v- 



"ihe students are brought to the obervaticn post, issued a record card, 
review on the methods of judging distances and the causes of miscalculation. They 
e then briefed on the following: 



■■. i ? 



Aim o 



i the exercise. 



.' ? ! 



Keierence points. 



'.*) Time limit. (3 minutes per object; 
U) Standard to be achieved. (.90%) 






students are spread out and the first abject is indicated. The student will have 
minutes to estimate the distance and write it down. The sequence is repeated for a 
total of eight objects. The cards are collected, and the correct range to each object 
is given, The instructor points out in each case why the distance might be 
underestimated or overestimated. After correction, the cards are given baci: to the 
students after the instructor has recorded the scores of the students. In this way 
the students retains a records of his performance. 



d. sroRLSC^ 



311 



■I 



a. The student is deemed to have failed if he estimates three or more targets 
incorrectly. 



b. During the duration of the 6 weeks of training 11 excercises will 
the student must pass with 80% accuracy 8 of the 11 range estimation 
order to successfully pass the range estiiaation test. 



be conducted, 
excercises in 



312 






Enclosure 7 



Stalking T 



1. The purpose of the stalking" exercise is to give the sniper confidence in his 
ability to approach and occupy a firing post ion without being observed. 



a. Having studied a reap (and aerial photograph, if available}. Individual students 
must stalk for a predesignated distance, which could be 1000 yards or more, depending 
on the area selected. All stalking exercises should be approximately 1000 yards with 
a foui- hour time limit. The student must stalk to within 200 yards (t or - 10%) of 
two trained observers (who are scanning the area with binoculars) and iire two blanks 
ivithcut being detected. 



b. The area used for a stalling exercise mu^st 
which a student must do the low cravji tor the 
The ioi lowing itejas should be considered: 



be chosen with 2;reat care. An area in 
complete distance wo^ld be unsuitable 



i 

.j. .- 



As much of the area as possible should be visible to the observer. This forces 
the student to use the terrain properly,, even when far from the observer's location 



(2) Where possible , available cover should decrease 
observer's position. This will enable the student tc 
and force his to move more carefully as he closes in 



as the student nears the 
take chances early in 
on his firing cost ion. 



+ >!& 



stai^ 



vj;j The student must start the stalk in an area cut of sight of the observer. 

■■4> Boundaries must be established by means or natural features or the use of 
markers. 



k n H 



in a location near the jump oil point for the stalk, 
the following; 



fh" st-^^r *~ i c b^lG^^ 1 ^ on 

-• J— L --_ -_J L - L^l - ,*». -„ J. ■- '- JL —■ "W *r IL \rf _k ^- ■ -•- '._- * I- 



Aim of the exercise. 



b. Boundaries 



L, . 



Time limit C usually 4 hours ). 



d. Standards to be achieved. (63 points) 

1&) After the briefing, the students are dispatched at intervals to avoid 
congestion. 



i 



313 



(7) In addition to the two observers, there are two "walkers", equipped with radio 
who will posticm themselves within the stalk area. If a* observer sees a student, h 
will contact a walker by radio and direct him to within 5 feet of the student's 
location. Therefore, when a student is detected, the observer can immediately tell t 
student what gave him away. 



e 



(8) Vh»n the student reaches his firing position, which is within 200 yarat at the 
observer he will fire a blank round at the observer. This will tell the waiter ne i| 
rpadiy to retinue the rest of the exercise. The observer will then move to witnm j- 
yards of tne student. Th? observer will search a 10 yard radius around the walker i:r 
the sniper student. 



t9i if the sniper is undetected, xhe walker will tell the sniper to chaster an=taer 
round and fire a second blank at the observer. If the sniper is still unseen, tr.-e 
walker will paint to the sniper's position, and the observer will search ior any.niij 
that indicates a human form, rirle, or equipment . 

("13 If zhe sniper still remains undetected, the walker will move in and put his h^ 



on top : 1 ' 



*1 



student's head. The observer will again search in detail. 



.-._*. ■_■ J J. ^_. 



•.It. BI_K.JL.L- — -_- r 



student is still not seen at this point, he must tell the walker wnich observer he 
snot and what he is doin*. The observer waves his hat, scratches his face, 
some kind of gesture that the student can identify when using his telescope. 



■:il) The sniper student must 
windage applied to the scope, 
he passes the stalk exercise. 



then tell the walker the exact, range, wind velocity, ai 
the sniper completes all of these steps 



If 



f-i j--, r r- -_i — \ ■- * r 



I 



■~N 



.» .-\ . 






,,/j A critique is conducted at the conclusion of the exercise 
or obi em areas. 






■ _- ■ 



GEEAIXEi IJaSfiESL. 



Io create interest and give the students practice in observing and stalking and 

one half of the class could be positioned to observe the conduct 



ot a Iking si.il 1 



the stalk. Seeing an error made is an effective way of teaching better stalking 

_ . _ , _ .n i -: . - _ ■__ __. * , ™t-_ ^ . > i ^ ~,^ r.^r.4- fn ~ n n^ ,-■ V-lcc^^m-q r- r^r-i-c__i i HP '» + -^ 



Vhen a student is caught, he should be sent to the observer past \01 
observe the exercise, 



cc j-H J i ^. 



314